3D TUTORIAL FOR QBASIC

By Matt Bross

By Matt Bross - March 15th, 1997

3D Programming: An Explanation of the Basics as Well as Some Advanced

Techniques -- With Examples -- in the BASIC Programming Language

We have all seen the effects of 3D animation, from games like DOOM to the

movie Toy Story. Wouldn't it be cool to be able to make your own 3D stuff! In this little

paper I hope to explain how it is possible to do this on your own home computer.

Converting 3D to 2D

This is the easy part and the first thing you need to know. To convert 3D

coordinates to a 2D screen use this: X, Y, and Z are 3D coordinates on a Cartesian plane,

and SX and SY are the final screen coordinates.

SX = X / Z

SY = Y / Z

This is very logical and easy to understand, but not something that you would just

think of. The farther the Z, the closer the points will be together. With different

variables, if the viewer is at the origin, you must give each of the variables its own

coordinate system, relate them with variables and, then, modify the equation. So, do it

like this: The screen coordinates of programming language are not oriented around (0, 0,

0), the origin, so you must add half the screen resolution to the end of the equation to

center the object on the screen. Using the same variables, VX, VY, VZ as the position of

the viewer, and SRX and SRY as the screen's resolution.

SX = ((X - VX) / (Z - VZ)) + (SRX / 2)

SY = ((Y - VY) / (Z - VZ)) + (SRY / 2)

Now, if you define points and then draw lines between them, this will draw a 3d

shape; not very impressive but definitely a start. (There are other ways of converting 3D

to 2D (ortho, where coordinates (X, Y, Z) become (X,Y), and parallel projection, where

(X, Y, Z) becomes (X + Z, Y + Z), are two) but the way I showed you, perspective

projection, is the best. The more impressive things are rotation and translation.

Rotation and Translation

Now, for rotation, Everything up until now has been pretty easy if you think about

it, unless math really isn't your thing. Now comes the first, relatively speaking, hard part.

A rotation rotates all the points, and a translation moves all points over in the same

direction and the same amount. Translations are simpler, so I'll describe them first.

Simply add a translation value to every point's respective X, Y, or Z coordinate,

depending on what direction you are translating. When programming, you will want to

store this in a separate variable to make the object's own coordinate system. If you don't

understand how this gives the object its own coordinate system, then think about this: if

you don't use the translation values, then don't add the amounts of translation and you are

left with an object surrounding the origin. In order to save space, SX equals screen x; SY

equals screen y; X, Y, Z means virtual coordinates x, y, z; TX, TY, TZ are translations

along the x, y, and z axes; and SRX, SRY are the screen's resolution; and VX, VY, VZ

are the coordinates of the viewer.

SX = ((TX + X -VX) / (TZ + Z - VZ)) + (SRX / 2)

SY = ((TY + Y - VY) / (TZ + Z - VZ)) + (SRY / 2)

Translations can also be done with matrices following, but it is more complicated. This

also gives an introduction to matrix mathematics (see appendix D), which is used for

rotation.

( 1, 0, 0, 0) = T1

( 0, 1, 0, 0)

( 0, 0, 1, 0)

(-TX, -TY, -TZ, 1)

The same matrix can also be expressed in spherical coordinates (which are used for

rotation and are explained next) to keep everything in the same form.

( 1, 0, 0, 0) = T1

( 0, 1, 0, 0)

( 0, 0, 1, 0)

(-roe(COS theta)(SIN phi), -roe(SIN theta)(SIN phi), -roe(COS phi), 1)

For rotation you must use spherical coordinates. Spherical coordinates are coordinates

that are expressed as distances from the origin and in angles, rather than in distances from

the X, Y, and Z axes. Spherical coordinates are noted (theta, phi, roe) as roe(a Greek

letter) describes the distance from the origin, theta (another Greek letter) is the angle from

the XY plane and phi (yet another Greek letter) is the angle from the Z axis. The

conversions between the standard Cartesian plane and the spherical coordinates are:

X = roe (SIN theta)(COS phi) theta = arcTAN (X / Y)

Y = roe (SIN theta)(SIN phi) phi = arcCOS (Z / Roe)

Z = roe (COS theta) roe = SQR(X ^ 2 + Y ^ 2 + Z ^ 2)

For 3D animation, the distance from the origin never changes, so the only variables are

theta and phi. So, for rotation around just one axis you must first find each point's

distance from the origin. Using the equation above, which is derived from the

Pythagorean theorem (in the case that a and b are legs of a right triangle and c is the

hypotenuse of the triangle, a ^ 2 + b ^ 2 = c ^ 2, but since there is another variable - depth

- you must add another variable to the equation that I will call "e" (this is not official). So,

the equation becomes (a ^ 2 + b ^ 2 + e ^ 2) = c2. If this is on a 2D plane e = 0 and e ^ 2

= 0. So, it has no use, but in 3D, e ¹ 0, all the time.) Using this theorem, convert the point

to spherical coordinates, once again using the equations above, add the amount of rotation

to phi and then convert it back to normal Cartesian coordinates and plot the point on the

screen. This can be done with the following 4 * 4 matrices.

Z axis clockwise rotation

( SIN theta, COS phi, 0, 0) = T2

(-COS theta, SIN theta, 0, 0)

( 0, 0, 1, 0)

( 0, 0, 0, 1)

X axis counter-clockwise rotation

(1, 0, 0, 0)

(0, -COS phi, SIN phi, 0)

(0, SIN phi, COS phi, 0)

(0, 0, 0, 1)

To get the final matrix that will be used, and converted into 2D rectangular and plotted on

the screen, multiply all the preceding matrices together. F = T1 * T2 * T3.

F = ( -SIN theta, -(COS theta)(COS phi), -(COS theta)(SIN phi), 0)

( COS theta, -(SIN theta)(COS phi), -(SIN theta)(SIN phi), 0)

( 0, SIN phi, -COS phi, 0)

( 0, 0, roe, 1)

So the original (X, Y, Z, 1) translated and rotated = F * (X, Y, Z,1) = (Xf, Yf, Zf, 1).

Xf = -X(SIN theta) + COS theta

Yf = -X(COS theta)(COS phi) - Y(SIN theta)(COS phi) + Z(SIN phi)

Zf = -X(COS theta)(SIN phi) - Y(SIN theta)(SIN phi) - Z(COS phi) + roe

A simpler matrix might be

Rotation around the Y axis where Yan is the angle of rotation around the Y axis

(COS Yan, 0, SIN Yan) = T1

( 0, 1, 0)

(-SIN Yan, 0, COS Yan)

Rotation around the Z axis where An is the angle of rotation around the Z axis

(1, 0, 0) = T2

(0, COS An, -SIN An)

(0, SIN An, COS An)

Rotation around the X axis where Xan is the angle of rotation around the X axis

(COS Xan, -SIN Xan, 0) = T3

(-SIN Yan, COS Yan, 0)

( 0, 0, 1)

The final Matrix (T1 * T2 * T3) where S1 = SIN Yan, C2 = COS An, etc. is

( C1C3 + S1S2S3, -C1S3 + C3S1S2, C2S1) = F

( C2S3, C2C3, -S2)

(-C3S1 + C1S2S3, S1S3 + C1C3S2, C1C2)

So

Xf = x(s1s2s3 + c1c3) + y(c2s3) + z(c1s2s3 - c3s1)

Yf = x(c3s1s2 - c1s3) + y(c2c3) + z(c1c3s2 + s1s3)

Zf = x(c1s2s3 - c3s1) + y(-s2) + z(c1c2)

or simpler and faster (some operations are repeated) where R1 = the angle of rotation

around the X axis, R2 is around the Y, and R3 is the Z.

Rotation around the Y axis

TEMPX = X * COS R2 - Z * SIN R2

TEMPZ = X * SIN R2 + Z * COS R2

Rotation around the X axis

Zf = TEMPZ * COS R1 - Y * SIN R1

TEMPY = TEMPZ * SIN R1 + Y * COS R1

Rotation around the Z axis

Xf = TEMPX * COS R3 + TEMPY * SIN R3

Yf = TEMPY * COS R3 - TEMPX * SIN R3

Now, if you understand this so far, then you'll have no problem programming your own

3D program in QBASIC, a programming language that comes free with DOS. If you are

having trouble, don't worry; maybe reading this example will help you. Otherwise, just

copy this code and run it with QBASIC.

'WIRE3DUO.BAS by Matt Bross, 1997

DEFINT A-Z 'defines all unmarked variables as integers

TYPE PointType 'defines user defined type PointType

x AS INTEGER 'X coordinate

Y AS INTEGER 'Y coordinate

z AS INTEGER 'Z coordinate

END TYPE 'end definition of type PointType

TYPE LineType 'defines user defined type LineType

C1 AS INTEGER 'number of the first point of a line

C2 AS INTEGER 'number of the second point of a line

CLR AS INTEGER 'color of the line

END TYPE 'end definition of type LineType

'%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%INFO%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

SCREEN 0, 0, 0, 0 'set to screen mode 0

WIDTH 80, 25'set height to 25 and width to 80 c

CLS 'clear the screen

COLOR 15 'print in color 15

PRINT "WIRE3DUO.BAS by Matt Bross, 1997" 'print the text in quotes

PRINT

COLOR 7

PRINT "3D WIREFRAME ANIMATION FOR THE QBASIC LANGUAGE"

PRINT "USE FREELY AS LONG AS I RECIEVE CREDIT DUE"

PRINT

COLOR 15

PRINT "--------CONTROLS--------"

COLOR 7

PRINT " 0 - reset rotation"

PRINT " 5 - stop rotation"

PRINT " S - reset location"

PRINT " A - stop translation"

PRINT "2, 8 - rotate around x axis"

PRINT "4, 6 - rotate around y axis"

PRINT "-, + - rotate around z axis"

PRINT CHR\$(24); ", "; CHR\$(25); " - translate vertically"

PRINT CHR\$(27); ", "; CHR\$(26); " - translate horizontally"

PRINT "Z, X - translate depthwise"

PRINT " Esc - exit"

COLOR 15

PRINT "----CASE INSENSITIVE----"

PRINT

'------------------------------>BEGIN INIT<-----------------------------

'make fast lookup variables for calling values (e.g. if x = 1 is used

'often,x = 1, is slower than one = 1: x = one)

ZERO = 0: ONE = 1: THREESIXD = 360

intMAX = 32767: intMIN = -32768

bitsX10 = 1024

A\$ = "A": S\$ = "S": z\$ = "Z": x\$ = "X"

ZERO\$ = "0": TWO\$ = "2": FOUR\$ = "4": FIVE\$ = "5": SIX\$ = "6"

EIGHT\$ = "8"

PLUS\$ = "+": MINUS\$ = "-": EQUALS\$ = "="

UP\$ = CHR\$(0) + "H": down\$ = CHR\$(0) + "P"

LEFT2\$ = CHR\$(0) + "K": RIGHT2\$ = CHR\$(0) + "M"

'%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%SCREEN VARIABLES%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

D = 300: SD = 60 'distance and perspective

MaxSpin = 20: MaxSpeed = 2 'max. translate and rotate

ScnMode = 7: m = 1: b = 0 'screen mode and pages

IF ScnMode <> 7 AND ScnMode <> 9 THEN ScnMode = 7

IF ScnMode = 7 THEN DX = 160: DY = 100 'center of screen mode 7

IF ScnMode = 9 THEN DX = 320: DY = 175 'center of screen mode 9

'%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%MAKE TABLES%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

DIM SINx(360) AS LONG 'initialize array for sines

DIM COSx(360) AS LONG 'initialize array for cosines

FOR i = 0 TO THREESIXD 'loop 360 times

'Create sine and cosine tables of all degrees 0 to 360 in radians and

'scale by 1024 or 10 bits and store as a 4-byte integer. The numbers

'will be scaled down again in the main loop. This is called fixed point

'math and is faster that floating point, or math with a decimal.

SINx(i) = SIN(i * (22 / 7) / 180) * bitsX10

COSx(i) = COS(i * (22 / 7) / 180) * bitsX10

IF i MOD 40 = 0 THEN LOCATE 22, 9: PRINT STR\$(i \ 4) + "%"

NEXT

RESTORE PointData 'Set pointer to read from label PointData.

READ MaxPoints 'Reads MaxPoints from appended data.

DIM points(1 TO MaxPoints) AS PointType 'points at start

DIM ScnPnts(1 TO MaxPoints) AS PointType 'points after rotation

DIM SX(1 TO MaxPoints), SY(1 TO MaxPoints) 'points drawn to screen

FOR i = 1 TO MaxPoints: READ points(i).x, points(i).Y, points(i).z: NEXT

RESTORE LineData 'Set pointer to read from label LineData.

READ MaxLines 'Reads MaxLines from appended data.

DIM l(1 TO MaxLines) AS LineType 'line data

DIM OLX1(1 TO MaxLines), OLY1(1 TO MaxLines) 'old line data

DIM OLX2(1 TO MaxLines), OLY2(1 TO MaxLines)

FOR i = 1 TO MaxLines: READ l(i).C1, l(i).C2, l(i).CLR: NEXT

'-------------------------------->END INIT<-----------------------------

LOCATE 22, 9: PRINT "100%"

PRINT "Press a Key"

DO: LOOP UNTIL INKEY\$ <> "" 'Do a loop until a key is pressed.

SCREEN ScnMode, 0, 0, 0 'set screen mode ScnMode

'----------------------------->BEGIN MAIN LOOP<-------------------------

DO

'*********************************GET KEY*******************************

K\$ = UCASE\$(INKEY\$) 'get the upper case equivalent of input from the

keyboard

SELECT CASE K\$ 'select which case the string variable k\$ is

CASE ZERO\$

R1 = ZERO: R2 = ZERO: R3 = ZERO 'stop rotation and reset it

D1 = ZERO: D2 = ZERO: D3 = ZERO

CASE FIVE\$

D1 = ZERO: D2 = ZERO: D3 = ZERO 'stop rotation

CASE A\$

MX = ZERO: MY = ZERO: MZ = ZERO 'stop translation

CASE S\$

MX = ZERO: MY = ZERO: MZ = ZERO 'stop translation and reset it

MMX = ZERO: MMY = ZERO: MMZ = ZERO

CASE TWO\$

D1 = D1 - ONE 'rotate counter-clockwise around the x axis

CASE EIGHT\$

D1 = D1 + ONE 'rotate clockwise around the x axis

CASE FOUR\$

D2 = D2 - ONE 'rotate counter-clockwise around the y axis

CASE SIX\$

D2 = D2 + ONE 'rotate clockwise around the y axis

CASE PLUS\$, EQUALS\$

D3 = D3 - ONE 'rotate clockwise around z axis

CASE MINUS\$

D3 = D3 + ONE 'rotate counter-clockwise around the z axis

CASE UP\$

MY = MY + ONE 'translate positively along the y axis

CASE down\$

MY = MY - ONE 'translate negatively along the y axis

CASE LEFT2\$

MX = MX + ONE 'translate positively along the x axis

CASE RIGHT2\$

MX = MX - ONE 'translate negatively along the x axis

CASE z\$

MZ = MZ + ONE 'translate positively along the z axis

CASE x\$

MZ = MZ - ONE 'translate negatively along the z axis

CASE CHR\$(27)

GOTO ShutDown 'end program

END SELECT

'*********************************ROTATION******************************

'keep sines and cosines in limits of the arrays

R1 = (R1 + D1) MOD THREESIXD

R2 = (R2 + D2) MOD THREESIXD

R3 = (R3 + D3) MOD THREESIXD

IF R1 < ZERO THEN R1 = THREESIXD + R1

IF R2 < ZERO THEN R2 = THREESIXD + R2

IF R3 < ZERO THEN R3 = THREESIXD + R3

'********************************TRANSLATION****************************

MMX = MMX + MX: MMY = MMY + MY: MMZ = MMZ + MZ

'keep variables within limits of integers

IF MMX > intMAX THEN MMX = intMAX

IF MMY > intMAX THEN MMX = intMAX

IF MMZ > intMAX THEN MMZ = intMAX

IF MMX < intMIN THEN MMX = intMIN

IF MMY < intMIN THEN MMX = intMIN

IF MMZ < intMIN THEN MMZ = intMIN

'******************************ROTATE POINTS****************************

S1& = SINx(R1): S2& = SINx(R2): S3& = SINx(R3)

C1& = COSx(R1): C2& = COSx(R2): C3& = COSx(R3)

FOR i = 1 TO MaxPoints

'Rotate points around the y axis.

TEMPX = (points(i).x * C2& - points(i).z * S2&) \ bitsX10

TEMPZ = (points(i).x * S2& + points(i).z * C2&) \ bitsX10

'Rotate points around the x axis.

ScnPnts(i).z = (TEMPZ * C1& - points(i).Y * S1&) \ bitsX10

TEMPY = (TEMPZ * S1& + points(i).Y * C1&) \ bitsX10

'Rotate points around the z axis.

ScnPnts(i).x = (TEMPX * C3& + TEMPY * S3&) \ bitsX10

ScnPnts(i).Y = (TEMPY * C3& - TEMPX * S3&) \ bitsX10

'*****************************CONVERT 3D TO 2D**************************

TEMPZ = ScnPnts(i).z + MMZ - SD

IF TEMPZ < ZERO THEN 'calculate points visible to the viewer

SX(i) = (ScnPnts(i).x + MMX) * D \ TEMPZ + DX

SY(i) = (ScnPnts(i).Y + MMY) * D \ TEMPZ + DY

END IF

NEXT

'******************************DRAW POLYGONS****************************

FOR i = 1 TO MaxLines

coord1 = l(i).C1: coord2 = l(i).C2

'erase old line

LINE (OLX1(i), OLY1(i))-(OLX2(i), OLY2(i)), 0

'get new points

OLX1(i) = SX(coord1): OLY1(i) = SY(coord1)

OLX2(i) = SX(coord2): OLY2(i) = SY(coord2)

'Draw line from (SX1, SY1) to (SX2, SY2) in color CLR

LINE (SX(coord1), SY(coord1))-(SX(coord2), SY(coord2)), l(i).CLR

NEXT

'******************************FRAME COUNTER****************************

F = F + 1

IF TIMER >= T# THEN

T# = TIMER + 1

FPS = F

LOCATE 1, 1

PRINT FPS: F = 0

END IF

'wait for vertical retrace, the electron beam to finish scanning the

'monitor

WAIT &H3DA, 8

LOOP

'----------------------------->END MAIN LOOP<---------------------------

ShutDown:

SCREEN 0, 0, 0, 0: WIDTH 80, 25: CLS

PRINT "Final Location of Points"

PRINT " X", " Y", " Z": PRINT STRING\$(31, "-")

FOR i = 1 TO MaxPoints: PRINT ScnPnts(i).x, ScnPnts(i).Y, ScnPnts(i).z:

NEXT

PRINT : PRINT "Free space": PRINT " String Array Stack": PRINT

STRING\$(21, "-")

PRINT FRE(""); FRE(-1); FRE(-2): END

PointData:

'%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%CUBE%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

'number of points

DATA 8

'Location of points (x, y, z)

DATA -10, 10,-10, -10,-10,-10, -10, 10, 10, -10,-10, 10

DATA 10, 10, 10, 10,-10, 10, 10, 10,-10, 10,-10,-10

'%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%PYRAMID%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

DATA 5

DATA 0, 10, 0, 0, 0,-10, 10, 0, 0, 0, 0, 10

DATA -10, 0, 0

LineData:

'%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%CUBE%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

'number of lines

DATA 12

'The points above can be numbered, the first data statement is 1. The

'points listed make lines from point 1 to point 2 in color 3.

DATA 1,2, 2, 1,3, 2, 3,4, 2, 2,4, 2, 1,7, 1, 3,5, 1, 5,7, 1

DATA 5,6, 1, 7,8, 1, 6,8, 1, 4,6, 1, 2,8, 1

'%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%PYRAMID%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

DATA 8

DATA 1,2, 1, 1,3, 1, 1,4, 1, 1,5, 1, 2,3, 1, 3,4, 1, 4,5, 1

DATA 2,5, 1

Look over this until it makes sense before you proceed, because compared to what's next,

this was easy.

The next thing to know is what a normal vector is. First of a vector, in 3d space,

is a line segment with a direction and a length, called a magnitude. A "normal" vector is a

vector perpendicular to the a plane. For all practical purposes, always use triangles as

planes because you don't have to worry about noncoplanar (not on the same plane) points,

because any three points make a plane.

To find the dot product, do the following to the three points of a triangle: subtract

x, y, z from the one point to the other two points and cross multiply them and then set

them to a variable to be stored in memory or if you want to set the equations

This finds the vectors

X coordinate of vector a = point 1 x - point 2 x

Y coordinate of vector a = point 1 y - point 2 y

Z coordinate of vector a = point 1 z - point 2 z

X coordinate of vector a = point 1 x - point 3 x

Y coordinate of vector a = point 1 y - point 3y

Z coordinate of vector a = point 1 z - point 3 z

This finds their cross product

Normal vector x = (Y vector a)(Z vector b) - (Z vector b)(Y vector a)

Normal vector y = (Z vector a)(X vector b) - (X vector a)(Z vector b)

Normal vector z = (X vector a)(Y vector b) - (Y vector a)(X vector b)

Now, you might wonder: why do you need to know the normal vector? You use

the normal vector to detect if a plane is visible or not. If a plane is not visible, then it is

culled and does not have to be drawn. Backface-culling, or searching for culled polygons,

saves a lot of time when you use advanced shading systems that will be demonstrated

later. The normal vector also determines the shade of the plane if you use Lambert's Law

of Shading. Lambert's Law states that the shade of the plane is related to the angle at

which the light passes through the normal vector of a plane. To find the angle of the light

and the normal vector use this formula, with Vectors A and B, Ax is the X coordinate of

the vector A, etc., and LA is the length of Vector A and LB is the length of B:

COS(angle) = ((Ax)(Bx) + (Ay)(By) + (Az)(Bz)) / (LA * LB)

If you forgot the 3D distance formula, it is d = SQR(x ^ 2 + y ^ 2 + z ^ 2). If the angle is

greater than 0 (degrees) and less than 90 or greater than 270 and less than 360, then it is

visible. Then, for even less math, reduce the magnitude of both vectors to 1 to eliminate

a multiply and a divide. To do this, find the length of the normal vector and divide the

normal vector by its magnitude. For more on vector mathematics see appendix C

After this, you must sort the planes by their Z coordinate, unless you use a Z buffer. To

do this, you must find the average of the Z coordinates. the first Z coordinate plus the

next Z coordinate plus the last Z coordinate, and then divide that quantity by 3. Then use

bubble sort to sort the coordinates. Now, you should begin to understand the following

QBASIC Example by Rich Geldreich, a 3D program with flat, has one, solid color per

'Shaded 3-D animation with shadows [solid5.bas] for QB4.5/PDS

'By Rich Geldreich 1992

'Notes...

' This version uses some floating point math in the initialization

'code for shading, but after initialization floating point math is not

'used at all.

' The shading employs Lambert's Law to determine the intensity of

'each visible polygon. Three simple lookup tables are calculated at

'initialization time which are used to eliminate multiples and

'divides in the main animation code.

' The hidden face detection algorithm was made by Dave Cooper.

'It's fast, and does not require any multiples and divides under most

'cases. The "standard" way of detecting hidden faces, by finding the

'dot product of the normal of each polygon and the viewing vector,

'was not just good (or fast) enough for me!

' The PolyFill routine is the major bottleneck of this program.

'QB's LINE command isn't as fast as I would like it to be... On my

'286-10, the speed isn't that bad (after all, this is all-QB!). On a

'386 or 486, this thing should fly... [hopefully]

' The shadows are calculated by projecting a line with the light

'source's vector through each of the points on the solid. Where this

'line hits the ground plane(which has a constant Y coordinate) is

'where the new shadow point is plotted.

' This program is 100% public domain- but of course please give

'some credit if you use anything from this program. Thanks!

DEFINT A-Z

DECLARE SUB CullPolygons ()

DECLARE SUB DrawLine (xs%, ys%, xe%, ye%, EdgeList() AS ANY)

DECLARE SUB DrawObject ()

DECLARE SUB DrawShadows ()

DECLARE SUB EdgeFill (EdgeList() AS ANY, YLow%, YHigh%, C%)

DECLARE SUB FindNormals ()

DECLARE SUB PolyFill (x1%, y1%, x2%, y2%, x3%, y3%, C%)

DECLARE SUB RotatePoints ()

DECLARE SUB ShadePolygons ()

CONST True = -1, False = 0

TYPE EdgeType 'for fast polygon rasterization

Low AS INTEGER

High AS INTEGER

END TYPE

TYPE PointType

XObject AS INTEGER 'original coordinate

YObject AS INTEGER

ZObject AS INTEGER 'rotated coordinate

XWorld AS INTEGER

YWorld AS INTEGER

ZWorld AS INTEGER

XView AS INTEGER 'rotated & translated coordinate

YView AS INTEGER

XShadow AS INTEGER 'coordinates projected onto the ground plane

END TYPE

TYPE PolyType

P1 AS INTEGER '3 points which make up the polygon (points

P2 AS INTEGER 'to the point list array)

P3 AS INTEGER

Culled AS INTEGER 'True if plane not visible

ZCenter AS INTEGER 'Z center of polygon

ZOrder AS INTEGER 'Used in the shell sort of the ZCenters

Intensity AS INTEGER 'Intensity of polygon

WorldXN AS INTEGER 'Contains the coordinates of the point

WorldYN AS INTEGER ' which is both perpendicular and a constant

WorldZN AS INTEGER ' distance from the polygon

NormalX AS INTEGER 'Normal of polygon -128 to 128

NormalY AS INTEGER ' (used for fast Lambert shading)

NormalZ AS INTEGER

END TYPE

TYPE LineType

P1 AS INTEGER 'Used for shadow projection

P2 AS INTEGER

END TYPE

DIM SHARED EdgeList(199) AS EdgeType

DIM SHARED SineTable(359 + 90) AS LONG 'cos(x)=sin(x+90)

DIM SHARED R1, R2, R3, ox, oy, oz

DIM SHARED MaxPoints, MaxPolys, MaxLines

DIM SHARED lines(100) AS LineType

DIM SHARED Polys(100) AS PolyType

DIM SHARED Points(100) AS PointType

DIM SHARED lx(256), ly(256), lz(256) 'lookup tables for Lambert shading

DIM SHARED s, XLow(1), XHigh(1), YLow(1), YHigh(1)

DIM SHARED lx, ly, lz

PRINT "QuickBASIC/PDS 3-D Solid Animation": PRINT "By Rich Geldreich

1992"

PRINT : PRINT "Keys: [Turn NUMLOCK on]"

PRINT "Left.....................Angle 1 -"

PRINT "Right....................Angle 1 +"

PRINT "Up.......................Angle 2 -"

PRINT "Down.....................Angle 2 +"

PRINT "-........................Angle 3 -"

PRINT "+........................Angle 3 +"

PRINT "5........................Rotation Stop"

PRINT "0........................Rotation Reset"

PRINT "Up Arrow.................Forward"

PRINT "Down Arrow...............Backward"

PRINT "Left Arrow...............Left"

PRINT "Right Arrow..............Right"

PRINT : PRINT "Initializing..."

MaxPoints = 4 'Pyramid.

'Points follow...

DATA -100,0,100, -100,0,-100, 100,0,-100, 100,0,100, 0,-290,0

MaxPolys = 5

'Polygons follow (they must be specified in counterclockwise

'order for correct hidden face removal and shading)

DATA 4,0,3, 4,3,2, 4,1,0, 4,2,1, 3,0,1, 3,1,2

MaxLines = 7

DATA 4,0, 4,1, 4,2, 4,3, 0,1, 1,2, 2,3, 3,0

'MaxPoints = 7 'Cube.

'DATA -100,100,100

'DATA 100,100,100

'DATA 100,100,-100

'DATA -100,100,-100

'DATA -100,-100,100

'DATA 100,-100,100

'DATA 100,-100,-100

'DATA -100,-100,-100

'MaxPolys = 11

'DATA 5,4,0, 5,0,1

'DATA 6,2,3, 3,7,6

'DATA 6,5,1, 6,1,2

'DATA 7,0,4, 7,3,0

'DATA 6,7,4, 6,4,5

'DATA 0,3,2, 1,0,2

'MaxLines = 11

'DATA 0,1, 1,2, 2,3, 3,0

'DATA 4,5, 5,6, 6,7, 7,4

'DATA 4,0, 5,1, 6,2, 7,3

'MaxPoints = 15 'Weird pencil-like shape...

'DATA 0,0,0, 250,0,0, 400,40,0, 400,60,0, 250,100,0, 0,100,0,-20,90,0

'DATA -20,10,0

'DATA 0,0,-50, 250,0,-50, 400,40,-50, 400,60,-50, 250,100,-50, 0,10

'DATA -50, -20,90,-50, -20,10,-50

'MaxPolys = 27

'DATA 1,0,7, 1,7,2, 2,7,6, 2,6,3, 3,6,4, 4,6,5

'DATA 9,15,8, 9,10,15, 10,14,15, 10,11,14, 11,13,14, 11,12,13

'DATA 8,7,0, 8,15,7, 8,0,1, 9,8,1, 9,1,2, 10,9,2, 10,2,3, 11,10,3

'DATA 12,11,4, 11,3,4, 4,5,13, 4,13,12

'DATA 5,6,14, 5,14,13, 14,6,7, 14,7,15

'MaxLines = 23

'DATA 0,1, 1,2, 2,3, 3,4, 4,5, 5,6, 6,7, 7,0

'DATA 8,9, 9,10, 10,11, 11,12, 12,13, 13,14, 14,15, 15,0

'DATA 0,8, 1,9, 2,10, 3,11, 4,12, 5,13, 6,14, 7,15

FOR a = 0 TO MaxPoints

READ Points(a).XObject, Points(a).YObject, Points(a).ZObject

X = X + Points(a).XObject: Y = Y + Points(a).YObject: Z = Z +

Points(a).ZObject

NEXT

'Center the object

X = X \ (MaxPoints + 1): Y = Y \ (MaxPoints + 1): Z = Z \ (MaxPoints +1)

FOR a = 0 TO MaxPoints

Points(a).XObject = Points(a).XObject - X

Points(a).YObject = Points(a).YObject - Y

Points(a).ZObject = Points(a).ZObject - Z

NEXT

FOR a = 0 TO MaxPolys

READ Polys(a).P1, Polys(a).P2, Polys(a).P3

NEXT

FOR a = 0 TO MaxLines

NEXT

'Precalculate the normal point of each polygon for fast Lambert shading

FindNormals

'Precalculate the sine table

a = 0

FOR a! = 0 TO (359 + 90) / 57.29 STEP 1 / 57.29

SineTable(a) = SIN(a!) * 1024: a = a + 1

NEXT

'Some light source configurations won't work that great!

l1 = 70: l2 = 40 'light source's spherical coordinates

a1! = l1 / 57.29: a2! = l2 / 57.29

s1! = SIN(a1!): c1! = COS(a1!)

s2! = SIN(a2!): c2! = COS(a2!)

lx = 128 * s1! * c2! 'convert spherical coordinates to a vector

ly = 128 * s1! * s2! 'scale up by 128 for integer math

lz = 128 * c1!

FOR a = -128 TO 128 'precalculate the three light source tables

lx(a + 128) = lx * a 'for fast Lambert shading

ly(a + 128) = ly * a

lz(a + 128) = lz * a

NEXT

PRINT "Strike a key...": DO: LOOP WHILE INKEY\$ = ""

R1 = 0: R2 = 0: R3 = 0 'three angles of rotation

ox = 0: oy = -50: oz = 1100 'object's origin (this program cannot

'currently handle the object when it goes

'behind the viewer!)

s = 1: t = 0

SCREEN 7, , 0, 0

OUT &H3C8, 0 'set 16 shades

FOR a = 0 TO 15

OUT &H3C9, (a * 34) \ 10

OUT &H3C9, (a * 212) \ 100

OUT &H3C9, (a * 4) \ 10

IF a = 7 THEN OUT &H3C7, 16: OUT &H3C8, 16

NEXT

LINE (0, 100)-(319, 199), 9, BF

LINE (0, 0)-(319, 99), 3, BF

SCREEN 7, , 1, 0

LINE (0, 100)-(319, 199), 9, BF

LINE (0, 0)-(319, 99), 3, BF

YHigh(0) = -32768: ShadowYHigh(0) = -32768

YHigh(1) = -32768: ShadowYHigh(1) = -32768

DO

'Flip active and work pages so user doesn't see our messy drawing

SCREEN 7, , s, t: SWAP s, t

'Wait for vertical retrace to reduce flicker

WAIT &H3DA, 8

'Erase the old image from the screen

IF YHigh(s) <> -32768 THEN

IF YHigh(s) < 100 THEN

LINE (XLow(s), YLow(s))-(XHigh(s), YHigh(s)), 3, BF

ELSEIF YLow(s) < 100 THEN

LINE (XLow(s), YLow(s))-(XHigh(s), 99), 3, BF

LINE (XLow(s), 100)-(XHigh(s), YHigh(s)), 9, BF

ELSE

LINE (XLow(s), YLow(s))-(XHigh(s), YHigh(s)), 9, BF

END IF

END IF

IF ShadowYHigh(s) <> -32768 THEN

END IF

RotatePoints

CullPolygons

XLow(s) = 32767: XHigh(s) = -32768

YLow(s) = 32767: YHigh(s) = -32768

DrawObject

R1 = (R1 + D1) MOD 360: IF R1 < 0 THEN R1 = R1 + 360

R2 = (R2 + D2) MOD 360: IF R2 < 0 THEN R2 = R2 + 360

R3 = (R3 + D3) MOD 360: IF R3 < 0 THEN R3 = R3 + 360

oz = oz + dz: ox = ox + dx

IF oz < 600 THEN

oz = 600: dz = 0

ELSEIF oz > 8000 THEN

oz = 8000: dz = 0

END IF

IF ox < -4000 THEN

ox = -4000: dx = 0

ELSEIF ox > 4000 THEN

ox = 4000: dx = 0

END IF

a\$ = INKEY\$

SELECT CASE a\$

CASE "4"

D1 = D1 - 2

CASE "6"

D1 = D1 + 2

CASE "8"

D2 = D2 - 2

CASE "2"

D2 = D2 + 2

CASE "5"

D1 = 0: D2 = 0: D3 = 0

CASE "0"

R1 = 0: R2 = 0: R3 = 0

D1 = 0: D2 = 0: D3 = 0

CASE "+"

D3 = D3 + 2

CASE "-"

D3 = D3 - 2

CASE CHR\$(27)

END

CASE CHR\$(0) + CHR\$(72)

dz = dz - 20

CASE CHR\$(0) + CHR\$(80)

dz = dz + 20

CASE CHR\$(0) + CHR\$(77)

dx = dx - 20

CASE CHR\$(0) + CHR\$(75)

dx = dx + 20

END SELECT

LOOP

'Shades the polygons using Lambert shading. Notice the total lack of

'floating point math- only 1 divide is required for each polygon shaded.

'(This divide can be eliminated, but the shading won't be as accurate.)

'"Culls" the polygons which aren't visible to the viewer. Also shades

'each polygon using Lambert's law.

SUB CullPolygons

'This algorithm for removing hidden faces was developed by Dave

'Cooper.

'There is another method, by finding the dot product of the

'plane's normal and the viewing vector, but this algorithm is

'much faster because of its simplicity(and lack of floating point

'calculations).

FOR a = 0 TO MaxPolys

P1 = Polys(a).P1

P2 = Polys(a).P2

P3 = Polys(a).P3

IF Points(P1).YView <= Points(P2).YView THEN

IF Points(P3).YView < Points(P1).YView THEN

PTop = P3

PNext = P1

PLast = P2

ELSE

PTop = P1

PNext = P2

PLast = P3

END IF

ELSE

IF Points(P3).YView < Points(P2).YView THEN

PTop = P3

PNext = P1

PLast = P2

ELSE

PTop = P2

PNext = P3

PLast = P1

END IF

END IF

XLow = Points(PTop).XView

YLow = Points(PTop).YView

XNext = Points(PNext).XView

XLast = Points(PLast).XView

IF XNext <= XLow AND XLast >= XLow THEN

Polys(a).Culled = True

ELSEIF XNext >= XLow AND XLast <= XLow THEN

Polys(a).Culled = False

ELSE

YNext = Points(PNext).YView

YLast = Points(PLast).YView

IF((YNext-YLow)*256&)\(XNext-XLow)<((YLast-YLow)*256&)\(XLast-XLow) THEN

Polys(a).Culled = False

ELSE

Polys(a).Culled = True

END IF

END IF

NEXT

END SUB

'Enters a line into the edge list. For each scan line, the line's

'X coordinate is found. Notice the lack of floating point math in this

'subroutine.

SUB DrawLine (xs, ys, xe, ye, EdgeList() AS EdgeType)

IF ys > ye THEN SWAP xs, xe: SWAP ys, ye

IF ye < 0 OR ys > 199 THEN EXIT SUB

IF ys < 0 THEN

xs = xs + ((xe - xs) * -ys) \ (ye - ys)

ys = 0

END IF

xd = xe - xs

yd = ye - ys

IF yd <> 0 THEN xi = xd \ yd: xrs = ABS(xd MOD yd)

xr = -yd \ 2

IF ye > 199 THEN ye = 199

xdirect = SGN(xd) + xi

FOR Y = ys TO ye

IF xs < EdgeList(Y).Low THEN EdgeList(Y).Low = xs

IF xs > EdgeList(Y).High THEN EdgeList(Y).High = xs

xr = xr + xrs

IF xr > 0 THEN

xr = xr - yd

xs = xs + xdirect

ELSE

xs = xs + xi

END IF

NEXT

END SUB

SUB DrawObject

'Find the center of each visible polygon, and prepare the order

list.

NumPolys = 0

FOR a = 0 TO MaxPolys

IF Polys(a).Culled = False THEN 'is this polygon visible?

Polys(NumPolys).ZOrder = a

NumPolys = NumPolys + 1

Polys(a).ZCenter = Points(Polys(a).P1).ZWorld +

Points(Polys(a).P2).ZWorld + Points(Polys(a).P3).ZWorld

END IF

NEXT

'Sort the visible polygons by their Z center using a shell sort.

NumPolys = NumPolys - 1

Mid = (NumPolys + 1) \ 2

DO

FOR a = 0 TO NumPolys - Mid

CompareLow = a

CompareHigh = a + Mid

DO WHILE Polys(Polys(CompareLow).ZOrder).ZCenter <

Polys(Polys(CompareHigh).ZOrder).ZCenter

SWAP Polys(CompareLow).ZOrder, Polys(CompareHigh).ZOrder

CompareHigh = CompareLow

CompareLow = CompareLow - Mid

IF CompareLow < 0 THEN EXIT DO

LOOP

NEXT

Mid = Mid \ 2

LOOP WHILE Mid > 0

'Plot the visible polygons.

FOR Z = 0 TO NumPolys

a = Polys(Z).ZOrder 'which polygon do we plot?

P1 = Polys(a).P1: P2 = Polys(a).P2: P3 = Polys(a).P3

PolyFill (Points(P1).XView), (Points(P1).YView),

(Points(P2).XView), (Points(P2).YView), (Points(P3).XView),

(Points(P3).YView), (Polys(a).Intensity)

NEXT

END SUB

YLow = 32767: YHigh = -32768

XLow = 32767: XHigh = -32768

FOR a = 0 TO MaxPoints

'Project the 3-D point onto the ground plane...

temp& = (Points(a).YWorld - 200)

X = Points(a).XWorld - (temp& * lx) \ ly

Y = 200 'ground plane has a constant Y coordinate

Z = Points(a).ZWorld - (temp& * lz) \ ly

'Put the point into perspective

xTemp = 160 + (X * 400&) \ Z

yTemp = 100 + (Y * 300&) \ Z

'Find the lowest & highest X Y coordinates

IF yTemp < YLow THEN YLow = yTemp

IF yTemp > YHigh THEN YHigh = yTemp

IF xTemp < XLow THEN XLow = xTemp

IF xTemp > XHigh THEN XHigh = xTemp

NEXT

'Store lowest & highest coordinates for later erasing...

IF XHigh < 0 OR XLow > 319 OR YLow > 199 OR YHigh < 0 THEN EXIT SUB

IF YHigh > 199 THEN YHigh = 199

IF YLow < 0 THEN YLow = 0

'Initialize the edge list

FOR a = YLow TO YHigh

EdgeList(a).Low = 32767

EdgeList(a).High = -32768

NEXT

'Enter the lines into the edge list

FOR a = 0 TO MaxLines

P1 = lines(a).P1

P2 = lines(a).P2

NEXT

'Fill the polygon

EdgeFill EdgeList(), YLow, YHigh, 3

END SUB

SUB EdgeFill (EdgeList() AS EdgeType, YLow, YHigh, C)

FOR a = YLow TO YHigh

LINE (EdgeList(a).Low, a)-(EdgeList(a).High, a), C

NEXT

END SUB

'This routine initializes the data required by the fast Lambert shading

'algorithm. It calculates the point which is both perpendicular

'and a constant distance from each polygon and stores it. This point

'is then rotated with the rest of the points. When it comes time for

'shading, the normal to the polygon is looked up in a simple lookup

'table for maximum speed.

SUB FindNormals

FOR a = 0 TO MaxPolys

P1 = Polys(a).P1: P2 = Polys(a).P2: P3 = Polys(a).P3

'find the vectors of 2 lines inside the polygon

ax! = Points(P2).XObject - Points(P1).XObject

ay! = Points(P2).YObject - Points(P1).YObject

az! = Points(P2).ZObject - Points(P1).ZObject

bx! = Points(P3).XObject - Points(P2).XObject

by! = Points(P3).YObject - Points(P2).YObject

bz! = Points(P3).ZObject - Points(P2).ZObject

'find the cross product of the 2 vectors

nx! = ay! * bz! - az! * by!

ny! = az! * bx! - ax! * bz!

nz! = ax! * by! - ay! * bx!

'normalize the vector so it ranges from -1 to 1

M! = SQR(nx! * nx! + ny! * ny! + nz! * nz!)

IF M! <> 0 THEN nx! = nx! / M!: ny! = ny! / M!: nz! = nz! / M!

'store the vector for later rotation(notice that it is scaled

'up by 128 so it can be stored as an integer variable)

Polys(a).WorldXN = nx! * 128 + Points(P1).XObject

Polys(a).WorldYN = ny! * 128 + Points(P1).YObject

Polys(a).WorldZN = nz! * 128 + Points(P1).ZObject

NEXT

END SUB

'Draws a polygon to the screen. Simply finds the start and stop X

'coordinates for each scan line within the polygon and uses the

'LINE command for filling.

SUB PolyFill (x1, y1, x2, y2, x3, y3, C) 'for QB 4.5 guys

'find lowest and high X & Y coordinates

IF y1 < y2 THEN YLow = y1 ELSE YLow = y2

IF y3 < YLow THEN YLow = y3

IF y1 > y2 THEN YHigh = y1 ELSE YHigh = y2

IF y3 > YHigh THEN YHigh = y3

IF x1 < x2 THEN XLow = x1 ELSE XLow = x2

IF x3 < XLow THEN XLow = x3

IF x1 > x2 THEN XHigh = x1 ELSE XHigh = x2

IF x3 > XHigh THEN XHigh = x3

IF YLow < 0 THEN YLow = 0

IF YHigh > 199 THEN YHigh = 199

IF XLow < XLow(s) THEN XLow(s) = XLow

IF XHigh > XHigh(s) THEN XHigh(s) = XHigh

IF YLow < YLow(s) THEN YLow(s) = YLow

IF YHigh > YHigh(s) THEN YHigh(s) = YHigh

'check for polygons which cannot be visible

IF YHigh < 0 OR YLow > 199 OR XLow > 319 OR XHigh < 0 THEN EXIT SUB

'initialize the edge list

FOR a = YLow TO YHigh

EdgeList(a).Low = 32767

EdgeList(a).High = -32768

NEXT

'Remember the lowest & highest X and Y coordinates drawn to the

'screen for later erasing

'Find the start and stop X coordinates for each scan line

DrawLine (x1), (y1), (x2), (y2), EdgeList()

DrawLine (x2), (y2), (x3), (y3), EdgeList()

DrawLine (x3), (y3), (x1), (y1), EdgeList()

EdgeFill EdgeList(), YLow, YHigh, C

END SUB

'Rotates the points of the object and the object's normals.

'Avoids floating point math for speed.

SUB RotatePoints

'lookup the sine and cosine of each angle...

s1& = SineTable(R1): c1& = SineTable(R1 + 90)

s2& = SineTable(R2): c2& = SineTable(R2 + 90)

s3& = SineTable(R3): c3& = SineTable(R3 + 90)

'rotate the points of the object

FOR a = 0 TO MaxPoints

xo = Points(a).XObject

yo = Points(a).YObject

zo = Points(a).ZObject

GOSUB Rotate3D

Points(a).XView = 160 + (x2 * 400&) \ z3

Points(a).YView = 100 + (y3 * 300&) \ z3

'IF y3 > 300 THEN STOP

Points(a).XWorld = x2

Points(a).YWorld = y3

Points(a).ZWorld = z3

NEXT

'rotate the normals of each polygon...

FOR a = 0 TO MaxPolys

xo = Polys(a).WorldXN

yo = Polys(a).WorldYN

zo = Polys(a).WorldZN

GOSUB Rotate3D

P1 = Polys(a).P1

'unorigin the point

x2 = x2 - Points(P1).XWorld

y3 = y3 - Points(P1).YWorld

z3 = z3 - Points(P1).ZWorld

'check the bounds just in case of a round off error

IF x2 < -128 THEN x2 = -128 ELSE IF x2 > 128 THEN x2 = 128

IF y3 < -128 THEN y3 = -128 ELSE IF y3 > 128 THEN y3 = 128

IF z3 < -128 THEN z3 = -128 ELSE IF z3 > 128 THEN z3 = 128

'store the normal back; it's now ready for the shading

'calculations (which are simplistic now)

Polys(a).NormalX = x2 + 128

Polys(a).NormalY = y3 + 128

Polys(a).NormalZ = z3 + 128

NEXT

EXIT SUB

Rotate3D:

x1 = (xo * c1& - zo * s1&) \ 1024 'yaw

z1 = (xo * s1& + zo * c1&) \ 1024

z3 = (z1 * c3& - yo * s3&) \ 1024 + oz 'pitch

y2 = (z1 * s3& + yo * c3&) \ 1024

x2 = (x1 * c2& + y2 * s2&) \ 1024 + ox 'roll

y3 = (y2 * c2& - x1 * s2&) \ 1024 + oy

RETURN

END SUB

FOR a = 0 TO MaxPolys

IF Polys(a).Culled = False THEN

'lookup the polygon's normal for shading

'(128*128)\15 = 1092

Intensity = (lx(Polys(a).NormalX) + ly(Polys(a).NormalY) +

lz(Polys(a).NormalZ)) \ 1092

IF Intensity < 0 THEN Intensity = 0

Intensity = Intensity + 5

IF Intensity > 15 THEN Intensity = 15

Polys(a).Intensity = Intensity

END IF

NEXT

END SUB

Gouraud and Phong Shading

Gouraud and phong are two different methods of shading. Gouraud shading is linear and

less realistic than phong, but it is faster. Phong shading is based on a cosinual wave.

Linear interpolation is a big long word for something simple once you understand it.

Hopefully, I will succeed in describing it to you. Linear interpolation takes two values and

finds the slope between them (e.g. the linear interpolation of points (0, 0) and (10, 5) is

the y delta (a Greek letter that means change, in this case 0 - 5) over the X delta (0 - 10)

the increment between the two points is -5 / - 10 or 1 / 2, for every 1 x over the y goes up

1 / 2. This is almost like slope intercept form that you learned in 7th or 8th grade (Like

me!). This slope intercept will be modified in Algebra II to y - Y1 = m(x - X1) which is

much easier to work with.)

The use Gouraud shading you must find the slope of the points and the slope of the colors.

To find the color, do the same as you did for the shade of a polygon in the last QBASIC

example, but this time find the intensity of the point instead of the normal. Then linearly

interpolate the color and the y coordinates and plot your pixel, then increase the point and

the color by the slope and continue until your polygon is filled. Here is an ASCII

representation of how gouraud shading works. The numbers represent palette values in

hexadecimal , to save space.

10 10 10

/ | d/ |e d/e|e

/ | a/ |c a/ab|c

/ | 7/ |a 7/89|c

/ | 4/ |8 4/56 |8

/ | 1/ |6 1/245|6

0 /___|4 0/___|4 0/1234|4

1223 1223

Phong shading finds the normal to each pixel and the dot product of the normal and the

light vector, and then plots the point. This is very slow because you must use one square

root per pixel to find its distance from the origin but it is 100% accurate.

Setting up your palette

There are two different methods for setting up your palette in a program. Linearly, just

shading a color by a constant increment, or the phong illumination model that is:

color = ambient + (diffuse)(COS a) + (specular)(COS a) ^ n

Ambient is the color of the low lights. Diffuse controls the actual color. Specular

determines the highlight. N hold special properties for the texture of the surface, and a is

an angle between 0 and 90, the angles light can hit a plane.

Polygon Clipping

This basically clips off the ends of the polygons that aren't on the screen. If you try to plot

a point off the screen, your computer might crash. This doesn't happen often. Usually

either nothing happens or the program crashes. The worst case scenario is it will

permanently damage your monitor. But with clipping this will never happen. All you have

to use to avoid this disaster are a few conditional statements. If the x coordinate of the

point to be plotted is greater than the screen width or less than zero, don't plot the point.

If the y coordinate of the point to be plotted is greater than the screen height or less than

zero, then don't plot the point. Pretty simple.

Here is my example showing all of these techniques. The GIF routine is by Rich

Geldreich; the Sorting algorithm is based on one by Ryan Wellman, and the Gouraud

shading is based on one by Luke Molnar.

Painter's Algorithm

An Algorithm is a problem that is solved by a computer. All of this stuff has been

algorithms. The Painter's Algorithm states that the viewer can only see the polygons

closest to him/her. So if you sort the polygons by their average Z coordinate ((z1+ z2 +

z3 + ... + zn) / n) back to front, then the picture will look right, and then draw it in that

order. When you look at a person, you don't usually see their internal organs because

their skin is in the way; in exactly the same way that you don't see a polygon that is

behind another polygon. The main drawback to this is overlapping polygons with equal or

close Z coordinates cannot be drawn correctly. That is why you need...

Hidden Face Removal

One of the best ways to optimize, make faster, 3D programs is hidden face

removal. A lot of time is spent rendering - or drawing - the shape after it has been

calculated. This is very wasteful because it takes a lot of time to write individual pixels to

the screen especially when polygons aren't visible to the viewer because they are covered

up by other polygons.

Backface-Culling

Backface-Culling is a way to determine if a plane is visible of not. To find this you

use the generally you use the dot product of the normal vector of the plane and vector of

light, but there are other ways of doing this (list the points in counterclockwise order and

then see if they are still in that order). This only works for enclosed shapes though, and

does not work even then all the time, because when you look at a plane in 3D space you

see two sides of it, the front and the back. This determines if the front or back side of the

polygon is showing or not, the dot product is negative. The dot product is the following,

where (X1, Y1, Z1); (X2, Y2, Z2); (X3, Y3, Z3) are the first three points of a polygon:

(X3((Z1Y2) - (Y1Z2)) + Y3((X1Z2)-(Z1X2)) + ((Z3(Y1X2)-(X1Y2))

Z-Buffering and S-Buffering

Z-buffering and S-buffering are extremely advanced systems that replace Z sorts

and backface culling and more accurate.

The Z-buffer uses a copy of the screen to remember if a close pixel has been placed. The

major drawback to this technique is that it use an incredible amount of array space. The

must have an element for ever pixel on the screen times the number of bytes you use to

store each element. One byte has 256 different combinations, so your world can 256

points deep. This isn't very much. Two bytes give you 65536 (256) different

combinations but for just screen mode 13h (hexadecimal) this is 128k (320 by 200 by 2

bytes) which is a huge array. The way Z buffering works is it finds where to plot a pixel

and it interpolates the Z coordinates, if the pixel is the closest at that point to the view

then it plots the point and changes the element for the pixel point to the new Z value else it

moves onto the next point. This technique can draw intersecting planes with ease and

saves time with slow sorting algorithms.

An S-buffer is basically a compressed Z buffer, so it uses less space, and therefore is

better. S- buffers finds the z of the parts of the plane its looking at and adds it to a linked

list of the planes and sorts them in memory before drawing them to the screen so no time

is wasted with graphics.

The main disadvantages of s-buffering compared to Z-buffering are that curved surfaces

aren't rendered well, and that s-buffering is very disorganized and harder to manage.

BSP Trees

A BSP (of Binary Space Partitioning) tree is a very advanced and versatile

technique. A BSP tree can be used to remove hidden surfaces and raytrace along with

many other things. What a BSP tree does is it stores all space and if any part of space has

a "hyperplane" in it, the space is divided in half. A hyperplane in 3D space is a plane (in

2D a line). If the plane is split there are two ways to go (this is where binary in the name

comes from) and this branches off like a tree. To first build a tree, select any plane in

space and set polygons on it. If there is a plane in any part of space then this creates a

new area to make a tree on, repeat this. The most common use of this technique is

hidden face removal. To use this for hidden face removal, just follow the tree backwards

DEFINT A-Z

DECLARE FUNCTION GetByte% ()

DECLARE SUB BufferWrite (a%)

DECLARE SUB MakeGif (a\$, ScreenX%, ScreenY%, Xstart%, YStart%, Xend%,

DECLARE SUB PutByte (a%)

DECLARE SUB PutCode (a%)

DECLARE SUB pal (c%, R%, G%, B%)

CONST TRUE = -1, FALSE = NOT TRUE

'GS3DO.BAS by Matt Bross, 1997

'The sorting algorithm was originally written by Ryan Wellman, which I

'modified for my own purposes. I made the 3D program with help from '3D

tutorials by Lithium /VLA, Shade3D.BAS by Rich Geldreich; and 'Gouraud

fill with Luke Molnar's (of M/K Productions) gorau.bas. The GIF 'support

is from Rich Geldreich's MakeGif.BAS.

'

'completely RANDOMIZE

RANDOMIZE TIMER: DO: RANDOMIZE TIMER: LOOP UNTIL RND > .5

'ON ERROR GOTO ErrorHandler

TYPE PointType

x AS SINGLE 'X coordinate

y AS SINGLE 'Y coordinate

z AS SINGLE 'Z coordinate

dis AS SINGLE 'distance from the origin (0, 0, 0)

END TYPE

TYPE PolyType

C1 AS INTEGER 'number of the first point of a polygon

C2 AS INTEGER 'number of the second point of a polygon

C3 AS INTEGER 'number of the third point of a polygon

culled AS INTEGER 'TRUE if the polygon isn't visible

AvgZ AS INTEGER 'used to sort Z coordinates of polygons

END TYPE

TYPE FillType

Y1 AS INTEGER 'starting Y coordinate

Y2 AS INTEGER 'ending Y coordinate

clr1 AS INTEGER 'starting color

clr2 AS INTEGER 'ending color

END TYPE

'%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%INFO%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

SCREEN 0, 0, 0, 0: WIDTH 80, 25: CLS

PRINT "GS3DO.BAS by Matt Bross, 1997"

PRINT

PRINT "3D ANIMATION FOR THE QBASIC LANGUAGE"

PRINT "COPYRIGHT MATT BROSS. USE FREELY AS"

PRINT "LONG AS CREDIT IS GIVEN."

PRINT

PRINT "--------CONTROLS--------"

PRINT " 0 - reset rotation"

PRINT " 5 - stop rotation"

PRINT " S - reset location"

PRINT " A - stop translation"

PRINT "2, 8 - rotate around x axis"

PRINT "4, 6 - rotate around y axis"

PRINT "-, + - rotate around z axis"

PRINT CHR\$(24); ", "; CHR\$(25); " - translate vertically"

PRINT CHR\$(27); ", "; CHR\$(26); " - translate horizontally"

PRINT "Z, X - translate depthwise"

PRINT " Esc - exit"

PRINT "----CASE INSENSITIVE----"

PRINT

INPUT "OBJECT TO LOAD", file\$

IF file\$ = "" THEN file\$ = "pyramid.txt"

'%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%VARIABLES%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

'SRX = the screen's x resolution

'SRY = the screen's y resolution

SRX = 320: SRY = 200

'DX = the X coordinate of the center of the screen

'DY = the Y coordinate of the center of the screen

DX = SRX \ 2: DY = SRY \ 2

'D = the viewer's distance then object: SD = controls perspective

D = 350: SD = 140

'MaxSpin = controls the maximum rotation speed

'MaxSpeed = controls the maximum translation speed

MaxSpin = 20: MaxSpeed = 10

'NumClr = the number of palette values to assign to shading each color

NumClr = 63

'%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%GIF STUFF%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

DIM SHARED CodeSize, CurrentBit, Char&, BlockLength

DIM SHARED Shift(7) AS LONG

DIM SHARED x, y, Minx, MinY, MaxX, MaxY, Done, GIFFile, LastLoc&

ShiftTable:

DATA 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128

'%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%SIN TABLES%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

'create SINe and COSine tables for 360 degrees in radians, and then

'scale 1024 times for faster math.

'\$STATIC

DIM SINx(360) AS LONG, COSx(360) AS LONG

FOR i = 0 TO 360

SINx(i) = SIN(i * (22 / 7) / 180) * 1024 'use 1024 to shift binary

digits

COSx(i) = COS(i * (22 / 7) / 180) * 1024 'over 6 bits.

NEXT i

DIM scan(320) AS FillType 'DIM gouraud shading array

DIM coord(1 TO 3)

'%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%DOUBLE BUFFERING ARRAYS%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

DIM SHARED aofs&

DIM SHARED ScnBuf(32001) 'DIM array to serve as page in SCREEN 13

ScnBuf(0) = 320 * 8 'set length (x)

ScnBuf(1) = 200 'set height (y)

DEF SEG = VARSEG(ScnBuf(2)) 'get segment of beginning of array data

aofs& = VARPTR(ScnBuf(2)) 'get offset of beginning of array data

'%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%LIGHT TABLES%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

DIM LX(256), LY(256), LZ(256)

'Location of light source in spherical coordinates

l1 = 70: l2 = 40: a1! = l1 / 57.29: a2! = l2 / 57.29

s1! = SIN(a1!): C1! = COS(a1!): s2! = SIN(a2!): C2! = COS(a2!)

LX = 128 * s1! * C2!: LY = 128 * s1! * s2!: LZ = 128 * C1!

'find length of segment from light source to origin (0, 0, 0)

ldis! = SQR(LX * LX + LY * LY + LZ * LZ) / 128

FOR a = -128 TO 128

LX(a + 128) = LX * a 'make light source lookup tables for shading

LY(a + 128) = LY * a

LZ(a + 128) = LZ * a

NEXT a

OPEN file\$ FOR INPUT AS #1

INPUT #1, MaxPoints, MaxPolys

DIM POINTS(MaxPoints) AS PointType 'at start

DIM ScnPnts(MaxPoints) AS PointType 'after rotation

DIM SX(MaxPoints), SY(MaxPoints) 'points drawn to screen

FOR i = 1 TO MaxPoints

INPUT #1, x!, y!, z!: POINTS(i).x = x!: POINTS(i).y = y!: POINTS(i).z=z!

'find distance from point to the origin (0, 0, 0)

dis! = SQR(x! * x! + y! * y! + z! * z!)

POINTS(i).dis = dis! * ldis!: ScnPnts(i).dis = dis! * ldis!

NEXT i

DIM SHARED P(MaxPolys) AS PolyType 'stores all polygon data

FOR i = 1 TO MaxPolys

INPUT #1, P(i).C1, P(i).C2, P(i).C3

NEXT i: CLOSE

PRINT "Press a Key"

DO: LOOP UNTIL INKEY\$ <> ""

'%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%SET PALETTE%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

SCREEN 13: CLS

s! = 0: ClrStep! = 63 / NumClr

FOR a = 0 TO NumClr

pal a, c, c, c

s! = s! + ClrStep!: c = INT(s!)

NEXT a

'%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%LOOK UP VARIABLES%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

ZERO = 0: ONE = 1: THREE6D = 360

'------------------------------>BEGIN MAIN LOOP<------------------------

DO

'*********************************GET KEY*******************************

k\$ = UCASE\$(INKEY\$)

SELECT CASE k\$

CASE "0"

R1 = ZERO: R2 = ZERO: R3 = ZERO

D1 = ZERO: D2 = ZERO: D3 = ZERO

CASE "5"

D1 = ZERO: D2 = ZERO: D3 = ZERO

CASE "A"

MX = ZERO: MY = ZERO: MZ = ZERO

CASE "S"

MX = ZERO: MY = ZERO: MZ = ZERO

MMX = ZERO: MMY = ZERO: MMZ = ZERO

CASE "2"

D1 = D1 - ONE

CASE "8"

D1 = D1 + ONE

CASE "4"

D2 = D2 - ONE

CASE "6"

D2 = D2 + ONE

CASE "+", "="

D3 = D3 - ONE

CASE "-"

D3 = D3 + ONE

CASE CHR\$(0) + "H"

MY = MY + ONE

CASE CHR\$(0) + "P"

MY = MY - ONE

CASE CHR\$(0) + "K"

MX = MX + ONE

CASE CHR\$(0) + "M"

MX = MX - ONE

CASE "Z"

MZ = MZ + ONE

CASE "X"

MZ = MZ - ONE

CASE CHR\$(27)

GOTO ShutDown

CASE "G"

INPUT "SAVE SCREEN as .GIF"; s\$

IF LEFT\$(UCASE\$(s\$), 1) = "Y" THEN

INPUT "Input Filename:", file\$

IF RIGHT\$(UCASE\$(file\$), 4) <> ".GIF" THEN file\$ = file\$ + ".GIF"

PUT (0, 0), ScnBuf, PSET

MakeGif file\$, 320, 200, 0, 0, 319, 199, 256, 2

END IF

END SELECT

'*********************************ROTATION******************************

'keep rotation speed under control

IF D1 > MaxSpin THEN D1 = MaxSpin

IF D2 > MaxSpin THEN D2 = MaxSpin

IF D2 > MaxSpin THEN D2 = MaxSpin

IF D1 < -MaxSpin THEN D1 = -MaxSpin

IF D2 < -MaxSpin THEN D2 = -MaxSpin

IF D2 < -MaxSpin THEN D2 = -MaxSpin

'keep SINes and COSines in array limits

R1 = (R1 + D1) MOD THREE6D: IF R1 < ZERO THEN R1 = THREE6D + R1

R2 = (R2 + D2) MOD THREE6D: IF R2 < ZERO THEN R2 = THREE6D + R2

R3 = (R3 + D3) MOD THREE6D: IF R3 < ZERO THEN R3 = THREE6D + R3

'********************************TRANSLATION****************************

'Keep translation speed from becoming uncontrollable

IF MX > MaxSpeed THEN MX = MaxSpeed

IF MY > MaxSpeed THEN MY = MaxSpeed

IF MZ > MaxSpeed THEN MZ = MaxSpeed

IF MX < -MaxSpeed THEN MX = -MaxSpeed

IF MY < -MaxSpeed THEN MY = -MaxSpeed

IF MZ < -MaxSpeed THEN MZ = -MaxSpeed

MMX = MMX + MX: MMY = MMY + MY: MMZ = MMZ + MZ

'Keeps variables within limits of integers

IF MMX > 32767 THEN MMX = 32767

IF MMY > 250 THEN MMY = 250

IF MMZ > 120 THEN MMZ = 120

IF MMX < -32767 THEN MMX = -32767

IF MMY < -120 THEN MMY = -120

IF MMZ < -327 THEN MMZ = -327

'*******************************MOVE OBJECT*****************************

FOR i = 1 TO MaxPoints

'rotate points around the Y axis

TEMPX = (POINTS(i).x * COSx(R2) - POINTS(i).z * SINx(R2)) \ 1024

TEMPZ = (POINTS(i).x * SINx(R2) + POINTS(i).z * COSx(R2)) \ 1024

'rotate points around the X axis

ScnPnts(i).z = (TEMPZ * COSx(R1) - POINTS(i).y * SINx(R1)) \ 1024

TEMPY = (TEMPZ * SINx(R1) + POINTS(i).y * COSx(R1)) \ 1024

'rotate points around the Z axis

ScnPnts(i).x = (TEMPX * COSx(R3) + TEMPY * SINx(R3)) \ 1024

ScnPnts(i).y = (TEMPY * COSx(R3) - TEMPX * SINx(R3)) \ 1024

'******************************CONVERT 3D TO 2D*************************

TEMPZ = ScnPnts(i).z + MMZ - SD

IF TEMPZ < ZERO THEN 'only calculate points visible by viewer

SX(i) = (D * ((ScnPnts(i).x + MMX) / TEMPZ)) + DX

SY(i) = (D * ((ScnPnts(i).y + MMY) / TEMPZ)) + DY

END IF

X1 = ScnPnts(i).x: Y1 = ScnPnts(i).y: Z1 = ScnPnts(i).z

s = CINT((X1 * LX + Y1 * LY + Z1 * LZ) \ ScnPnts(i).dis) + 128

IF s < ZERO THEN s = ZERO

IF s > 256 THEN s = 256

shade = (LX(s) + LY(s) + LZ(s)) \ 3

IF shade < ZERO THEN shade = ZERO

IF shade > NumClr THEN shade = NumClr

NEXT

FOR i = 1 TO MaxPolys

'*************************CULL NON-VISIABLE POLYGONS********************

'this isn't perfect yet so I REMmed it, so for more speed unrem the

following

coord(1) = P(i).C1: coord(2) = P(i).C2: coord(3) = P(i).C3

X1 = ScnPnts(coord(1)).x: X2 = ScnPnts(coord(2)).x: X3 =

ScnPnts(coord(3)).x

Y1 = ScnPnts(coord(1)).y: Y2 = ScnPnts(coord(2)).y: Y3 =

ScnPnts(coord(3)).y

Z1 = ScnPnts(coord(1)).z: Z2 = ScnPnts(coord(2)).z: Z3 =

ScnPnts(coord(3)).z

cull1 = X3 * ((Y1 * Z2) - (Z1 * Y2)): cull2 = Y3 * ((X1 * Z2) - (Z1 *

X2))

cull3 = Z3 * ((X1 * Y2) - (Y1 * X2))

IF cull1 + cull2 + cull3 = ZERO THEN P(i).culled = TRUE ELSE P(i).culled

= FALSE

'******************FIND AVERAGE Z COORDINATE OF EACH POLYGON************

P(i).AvgZ = (Z1 + Z2 + Z3) \ 3

NEXT i

'******************SORT POLGONS BY THEIR AVERAGE Z COORDINATE***********

increment = MaxPolys + 1

DO

increment = increment \ 2

FOR index = 1 TO MaxPolys - increment

IF P(index).AvgZ > P(index + increment).AvgZ THEN

SWAP P(index), P(index + increment)

IF index > increment THEN

cutpoint = index

DO

index = (index - increment): IF index < 1 THEN index = 1

IF P(index).AvgZ > P(index + increment).AvgZ THEN

SWAP P(index), P(index + increment)

ELSE

index = cutpoint: EXIT DO

END IF

LOOP

END IF

END IF

NEXT index

LOOP UNTIL increment <= 1

'******************************DRAW POLYGONS****************************

'clear screen buffer. Use a 320 by 200 BLOADable graphic for a

background.

ERASE ScnBuf: ScnBuf(0) = 2560: ScnBuf(1) = SRY

FOR i = 1 TO MaxPolys

IF P(i).culled = FALSE THEN

coord(1) = P(i).C1: coord(2) = P(i).C2: coord(3) = P(i).C3

'find highest and lowest Y coordinates

xmin = SRX: xmax = ZERO

IF SX(coord(1)) > xmax THEN xmax = SX(coord(1))

IF SX(coord(2)) > xmax THEN xmax = SX(coord(2))

IF SX(coord(3)) > xmax THEN xmax = SX(coord(3))

IF SX(coord(1)) < xmin THEN xmin = SX(coord(1))

IF SX(coord(2)) < xmin THEN xmin = SX(coord(2))

IF SX(coord(3)) < xmin THEN xmin = SX(coord(3))

'keep min's and max's in the limits of the screen

IF xmin < ZERO THEN xmin = ZERO

IF xmax > SRX THEN xmax = SRX

IF xmin > SRX THEN EXIT FOR

IF xmax < ZERO THEN EXIT FOR

IF SY(coord(1)) AND SY(coord(2)) AND SY(coord(3)) < ZERO THEN EXIT

FOR

IF SY(coord(1)) AND SY(coord(2)) AND SY(coord(3)) > SRY THEN EXIT

FOR

ERASE scan

FOR j = 1 TO 3

k = j + 1: IF k > 3 THEN k = 1

VAL1 = coord(j): VAL2 = coord(k)

IF SX(VAL1) > SX(VAL2) THEN SWAP VAL1, VAL2

Y1 = SY(VAL1): X1 = SX(VAL1): Y2 = SY(VAL2): X2 = SX(VAL2)

XDelta = X2 - X1: YDelta = Y2 - Y1: CDelta = Col2 - col1

IF XDelta <> ZERO THEN

YSlope = (YDelta / XDelta) * 128

CSlope = (CDelta / XDelta) * 128

ELSE

YSlope = ZERO

CSlope = ZERO

END IF

YVal& = Y1 * 128: CVal& = col1 * 128

IF X1 < ZERO THEN X1 = ZERO

IF X2 > SRX THEN X2 = SRX

FOR f = X1 TO X2

IF scan(f).Y1 = ZERO THEN

scan(f).Y1 = YVal& \ 128

scan(f).clr1 = CVal& \ 128

ELSE

scan(f).Y2 = YVal& \ 128

scan(f).clr2 = CVal& \ 128

END IF

YVal& = YVal& + YSlope

CVal& = CVal& + CSlope

NEXT f

NEXT j

FOR f = xmin TO xmax

IF scan(f).Y1 > scan(f).Y2 THEN

Y1 = scan(f).Y2: Y2 = scan(f).Y1

col1 = scan(f).clr2: Col2 = scan(f).clr1

ELSE

Y1 = scan(f).Y1: Y2 = scan(f).Y2

col1 = scan(f).clr1: Col2 = scan(f).clr2

END IF

YDelta = Y2 - Y1: CDelta = Col2 - col1

IF YDelta = ZERO THEN YDelta = 1

CSlope = (CDelta / YDelta) * 128: CVal& = col1 * 128

FOR j = scan(f).Y1 TO scan(f).Y2

'clip polygon to screen (set boundaries)

IF f < SRX AND f > ZERO AND j > ZERO AND j < SRY THEN

pixel = CVal& \ 128: IF pixel > NumClr THEN pixel = NumClr

'write pixel to screen buffer

POKE aofs& + f + j * 320&, pixel

END IF

CVal& = CVal& + CSlope

NEXT j

NEXT f

END IF

NEXT i

PUT (ZERO, ZERO), ScnBuf, PSET 'dump array to screen, like PCOPY

'******************************FRAME COUNTER****************************

'LOCATE 1, 1: PRINT fps: frame = frame + 1

'LOCATE 2, 1: PRINT TIMER - D#: D# = TIMER

'IF TIMER > t# THEN t# = TIMER + 1: fps = frame: frame = zero

LOOP

'------------------------------>END MAIN LOOP<--------------------------

ShutDown:

DEF SEG

SCREEN 0, 0, 0, 0: WIDTH 80, 25: CLS

PRINT "GS3DO.BAS by Matt Bross, 1997"

PRINT : PRINT "THERE WERE"; MaxPoints; "POINTS AND"; MaxPolys;

"POLYGONS"

PRINT : PRINT "Free space"

PRINT " String Array Stack"

PRINT STRING\$(21, "-")

PRINT FRE(""); FRE(-1); FRE(-2): END

ErrorHandler:

RESUME NEXT

'Puts a byte into the disk buffer... when the disk buffer is full it is

'dumped to disk.

SUB BufferWrite (a) STATIC

IF OAddress = OEndAddress THEN 'are we at the end of the buffer?

PUT GIFFile, , OutBuffer\$ ' yup, write it out and

OAddress = OStartAddress ' start all over

END IF

POKE OAddress, a 'put byte in buffer

OAddress = OAddress + 1 'increment position

END SUB

'This routine gets one pixel from the display.

FUNCTION GetByte STATIC

GetByte = POINT(x, y) 'get the "byte"

x = x + 1 'increment X coordinate

IF x > MaxX THEN 'are we too far?

LINE (Minx, y)-(MaxX, y), 0 'a pacifier for impatient users

x = Minx 'go back to start

y = y + 1 'increment Y coordinate

IF y > MaxY THEN 'are we too far down?

Done = TRUE ' yup, flag it then

END IF

END IF

END FUNCTION

'

'-----------------------------------------------------------------------

' PDS 7.1 & QB4.5 GIF Compression Routine v1.00 By Rich Geldreich 1992

'-----------------------------------------------------------------------

'

'A\$ = output filename

'ScreenX = X resolution of screen(320, 640, etc.)

'ScreenY = Y resolution of screen(200, 350, 480, etc.)

'XStart = <-upper left hand corner of area to encode

'YStart = < " "

'Xend = <-lower right hand corner of area to encode

'Yend = < " "

'NumColors = # of colors on screen(2, 16, 256)

'AdaptorType = 1 for EGA 2 for VGA

'NOTE: EGA palettes are not supported in this version of MakeGIF.

'

SUB MakeGif (a\$, ScreenX, ScreenY, Xstart, YStart, Xend, Yend,

'hash table's size - must be a prime number!

CONST Table.Size = 7177

DIM Prefix(Table.Size - 1), Suffix(Table.Size -1),code(Table.Size-1)

'The shift table contains the powers of 2 needed by the

'PutCode routine. This is done for speed. (much faster to

'look up an integer than to perform calculations...)

RESTORE ShiftTable

FOR a = 0 TO 7: READ Shift(a): NEXT

'MinX, MinY, MaxX, MaxY have the encoding window

Minx = Xstart: MinY = YStart

MaxX = Xend: MaxY = Yend

'Open GIF output file

GIFFile = FREEFILE 'use next free file

OPEN a\$ FOR BINARY AS GIFFile

'Put GIF87a header at beginning of file

B\$ = "GIF87a"

PUT GIFFile, , B\$

'See how many colors are in this image...

SELECT CASE NumColors

CASE 2 'monochrome image

BitsPixel = 1 '1 bit per pixel

StartSize = 3 'first LZW code is 3 bits

StartCode = 4 'first free code

StartMax = 8 'maximum code in 3 bits

CASE 16 '16 colors images

BitsPixel = 4 '4 bits per pixel

StartSize = 5 'first LZW code is 5 bits

StartCode = 16 'first free code

StartMax = 32 'maximum code in 5 bits

CASE 256 '256 color images

BitsPixel = 8 '8 bits per pixel

StartSize = 9 'first LZW code is 9 bits

StartCode = 256 'first free code

StartMax = 512 'maximum code in 9 bits

END SELECT

'This following routine probably isn't needed- I've never

'had to use the "ColorBits" variable... With the EGA, you

'have 2 bits for Red, Green, & Blue. With VGA, you have 6 bits.

CASE 1

ColorBits = 2 'EGA

CASE 2

ColorBits = 6 'VGA

END SELECT

PUT GIFFile, , ScreenX 'put screen's dimensions

PUT GIFFile, , ScreenY

'pack colorbits and bits per pixel

a = 128 + (ColorBits - 1) * 16 + (BitsPixel - 1)

PUT GIFFile, , a

'throw a zero into the GIF file

a\$ = CHR\$(0)

PUT GIFFile, , a\$

'Get the RGB palette from the screen and put it into the file...

CASE 1

STOP

'EGA palette routine not implemented yet

CASE 2

OUT &H3C7, 0

FOR a = 0 TO NumColors - 1

'Note: a BIOS call could be used here, but then we have to use

'the messy CALL INTERRUPT subs...

R = (INP(&H3C9) * 65280) \ 16128 'C=R * 4.0476190(for 0-255)

G = (INP(&H3C9) * 65280) \ 16128

B = (INP(&H3C9) * 65280) \ 16128

a\$ = CHR\$(R): PUT GIFFile, , a\$

a\$ = CHR\$(G): PUT GIFFile, , a\$

a\$ = CHR\$(B): PUT GIFFile, , a\$

NEXT

END SELECT

'write out an image descriptor...

a\$ = "," '"," is image seperator

PUT GIFFile, , a\$ 'write it

PUT GIFFile, , Minx 'write out the image's location

PUT GIFFile, , MinY

ImageWidth = (MaxX - Minx + 1) 'find length & width of image

ImageHeight = (MaxY - MinY + 1)

PUT GIFFile, , ImageWidth 'store them into the file

PUT GIFFile, , ImageHeight

a\$ = CHR\$(BitsPixel - 1) '# bits per pixel in the image

PUT GIFFile, , a\$

a\$ = CHR\$(StartSize - 1) 'store the LZW minimum code size

PUT GIFFile, , a\$

'Initialize the vars needed by PutCode

CurrentBit = 0: Char& = 0

MaxCode = StartMax 'the current maximum code size

CodeSize = StartSize 'the current code size

ClearCode = StartCode 'ClearCode & EOF code are the

EOFCode = StartCode + 1 ' first two entries

StartCode = StartCode + 2 'first free code that can be used

NextCode = StartCode 'the current code

OutBuffer\$ = STRING\$(5000, 32) 'output buffer; for speedy disk writes

a& = SADD(OutBuffer\$) 'find address of buffer

a& = a& - 65536 * (a& < 0)

Oseg = VARSEG(OutBuffer\$) + (a& \ 16) 'get segment + offset >> 4

OAddress = a& AND 15 'get address into segment

OEndAddress = OAddress + 5000 'end of disk buffer

OStartAddress = OAddress 'current location in disk

buffer

DEF SEG = Oseg

GOSUB ClearTree 'clear the tree & output a

PutCode ClearCode ' clear code

x = Xstart: y = YStart 'X & Y have the current pixel

Prefix = GetByte 'the first pixel is a special case

Done = FALSE 'True when image is complete

DO 'while there are more pixels to encode

DO 'until we have a new string to put into the table

IF Done THEN 'write out the last pixel, clear the disk buffer

'and fix up the last block so its count is correct

PutCode Prefix 'write last pixel

PutCode EOFCode 'send EOF code

IF CurrentBit <> 0 THEN

PutCode 0 'flush out the last code...

END IF

PutByte 0

PUT GIFFile, , OutBuffer\$

a\$ = ";" + STRING\$(8, &H1A) 'the 8 EOF chars is not standard,

'but many GIF's have them, so how

'much could it hurt?

PUT GIFFile, , a\$

a\$ = CHR\$(255 - BlockLength) 'correct the last block's count

PUT GIFFile, LastLoc&, a\$

CLOSE GIFFile

EXIT SUB

ELSE 'get a pixel from the screen and see if we can find

'the new string in the table

Suffix = GetByte

GOSUB Hash 'is it there?

IF Found = TRUE THEN Prefix = code(index) 'yup, replace the

'prefix:suffix string with whatever

'code represents it in the table

END IF

LOOP WHILE Found 'don't stop unless we find a new string

PutCode Prefix 'output the prefix to the file

Prefix(index) = Prefix 'put the new string in the table

Suffix(index) = Suffix

code(index) = NextCode 'we've got to keep track if what code this is!

Prefix = Suffix 'Prefix=the last pixel pulled from the screen

NextCode = NextCode + 1 'get ready for the next code

IF NextCode = MaxCode + 1 THEN 'can an output code ever exceed

'the current code size?

'yup, increase the code size

MaxCode = MaxCode * 2

'Note: The GIF89a spec mentions something about a deferred clear

'code. When the clear code is deferred, codes are not entered

'into the hash table anymore. When the compression of the image

'starts to fall below a certain threshold, the clear code is

'sent and the hash table is cleared. The overall result is

'greater compression, because the table is cleared less often.

'This version of MakeGIF doesn't support this, because some GIF

'decoders crash when they attempt to enter too many codes

'into the string table.

IF CodeSize = 12 THEN 'is the code size too big?

PutCode ClearCode 'yup; clear the table and

GOSUB ClearTree 'start over

NextCode = StartCode

CodeSize = StartSize

MaxCode = StartMax

ELSE

CodeSize = CodeSize + 1 'just increase the code size if

END IF 'it's not too high( not > 12)

END IF

LOOP 'while we have more pixels

ClearTree:

FOR a = 0 TO Table.Size - 1 'clears the hashing table

Prefix(a) = -1 '-1 = invalid entry

Suffix(a) = -1

code(a) = -1

NEXT

RETURN

'this is only one of a plethora of ways to search the table for

'a match! I used a binary tree first, but I switched to hashing

'cause it's quicker(perhaps the way I implemented the tree wasn't

'optimal... who knows!)

Hash:

'hash the prefix & suffix(there are also many ways to do this...)

'?? is there a better formula?

index = ((Prefix * 256&) XOR Suffix) MOD Table.Size

'

'(Note: the table size(7177 in this case) must be a prime number, or

'else there's a chance that the routine will hang up... hate when

'that happens!)

'

'Calculate an offset just in case we don't find what we want on the

'first try...

IF index = 0 THEN 'can't have Table.Size-0 !

Offset = 1

ELSE

Offset = Table.Size - index

END IF

DO 'until we (1) find an empty entry or (2) find what we're lookin for

IF code(index) = -1 THEN 'is this entry blank?

Found = FALSE 'yup- we didn't find the string

RETURN

'is this entry the one we're looking for?

ELSEIF Prefix(index) = Prefix AND Suffix(index) = Suffix THEN

'yup, congrats you now understand hashing!!!

Found = TRUE

RETURN

ELSE

'shoot! we didn't find anything interesting, so we must

'retry- this is what slows hashing down. I could of used

'a bigger table, that would of speeded things up a little

'because this retrying would not happen as often...

index = index - Offset

IF index < 0 THEN 'too far down the table?

'wrap back the index to the end of the table

index = index + Table.Size

END IF

END IF

LOOP

END SUB

SUB pal (c, R, G, B)

OUT &H3C8, c

OUT &H3C9, R

OUT &H3C9, G

OUT &H3C9, B

END SUB

'Puts a byte into the GIF file & also takes care of each block.

SUB PutByte (a) STATIC

BlockLength = BlockLength - 1 'are we at the end of a block?

IF BlockLength <= 0 THEN ' yup,

BlockLength = 255 'block length is now 255

LastLoc& = LOC(1) + 1 + (OAddress - OStartAddress) 'remember the pos.

BufferWrite 255 'for later fixing

END IF

BufferWrite a 'put a byte into the buffer

END SUB

'Puts an LZW variable-bit code into the output file...

SUB PutCode (a) STATIC

Char& = Char& + a * Shift(CurrentBit) 'put the char were it belongs;

CurrentBit = CurrentBit + CodeSize ' shifting it to its proper place

DO WHILE CurrentBit > 7 'do we have a least one full byte?

PutByte Char& AND 255 ' yup! mask it off and write it out

Char& = Char& \ 256 'shift the bit buffer right 8 bits

CurrentBit = CurrentBit - 8 'now we have 8 less bits

LOOP 'until we don't have a full byte

END SUB

'--------------------------------->CUT HERE PYRAMID.TXT<----------------------------------

5 36

10 0 0

0 0 10

0 0 -10

-10 0 0

0 10 0

5 1 3

5 3 1

3 1 5

3 5 1

1 3 5

1 5 3

5 1 2

5 2 1

2 1 5

2 5 1

1 2 5

1 5 2

5 2 4

5 4 2

2 4 5

2 5 4

4 5 2

4 2 5

5 3 4

5 4 3

3 4 5

3 5 4

4 5 3

4 3 5

4 3 1

4 1 3

3 1 4

3 4 1

1 3 4

1 4 3

4 1 2

4 2 1

2 1 4

2 4 1

1 2 4

1 4 2

'----------------------------------------->END SNIP<---------------------------------------------

Texture Mapping

Texture mapping is adding a picture and curves it to a 3D surface. No mapping algorithm

is 100% correct but this adds many incredible effects to 3D programs and for advanced

3D raytracers used for art and what not. The easiest way to do this is to use a 4 point

plane, or a 2D quadrilateral. This technique is used in many DOOM-like games (Although

many DOOM-like games, including DOOM, are 2D raytracers) for texturing walls and

floors. All you have to do is scan convert all the sides and fill it in. Scan conversion

divides each side up into equal parts, e.g. divide the distance of every side of the polygon

by any same number, and then fill the points in each section with the pixel color of the

texture. But this only textures a quadrilateral, so for other shades than squares or

rectangles you must create virtual points to use as the points of the quadrilateral and this

screws up the perspective. This is called affine texture mapping.

ex.

'<HTML>

' <TITLE>

' Texturemapping

' </TITLE>

' <BODY BGCOLOR=FFFFFF>

' <B>

' Texturemapping

' </B>

' <BR>

' Here is some source code I found on a BBS by my house and I guess it

'came from rec.games.programmer way back in 1994! (Geeze that�s old!)

'This code looks like it will work fine with the 3D code that I have

'on-line as long as you define the faces with 4 points.<BR>

' This is not my code.<BR>

' <OL>

' <FONT COLOR=00AC00>

' <CODE>

' <PRE>

'From rec.games.programmer Fri. Mar 18 13:17:50 1994

'Path:govonca!torn!howland.reston.ans.net!wupost!gumby!yale!yale.edu!nig

'el.msen.com!ilium!rcsuna.gmr.com!mloeff01.elec.mid.gmeds.com!sun85.elec

'.mid.gmeds.com!not-for-mail

'From: holz@cpchq.cpc.gmeds.com (White Flame)

'Newsgroups: rec.games.programmer

'Subject: Fast texture mapping algo!

'Date: 15 Mar 1994 09:31:10 -0500

'Organization: North American Operations, G.M. Corp.

'Lines: 354

'Sender: holz@sun85.elec.mid.gmeds.com

'Distribution: world

'Message-ID: <2m4gre\$bak@sun85.elec.mid.gmeds.com>

'NNTP -Posting - Host: sun85

'

'

'Okay, here's that texture-mapping algorithm that

'Alan Parker posted in comp.graphics.algorithms.

'it's pretty fast, but I think that I might have

'copied a line wrong or something, as you can see

'by the top and bottom faces of the square. They're

'a pixel off. Oh, well, here it is:

'

'--------------8<-----------------------

DEFSNG A-Z

' Texture Mapping example.

' Maps 4 sided picture onto a 4 sided polygon.

' Written in GFA basic version 2

' By Alan Parker (E-Mail: selap@dmu.ac.uk)

' On 1/2/94

' Ported to Microsoft QBASIC v1.0 by White Flame on 2/9/94

' This texture mapping method was 'borrowed' from Ben of Chaos.

' I've no idea who originally thought of this method.

' There's not many detailed comments, I've already dome my best when I

' explained the algorithm before and nobody understood it, now it's up

to you!

' Note: All variables with % after them are Integers, all other are

'Reals.

' Y co-ords go from top(0) to bottom(199) of the screen.

' 'picture' refers to the original bitmapped picture.

' 'polygon' refers to the polygon drawn on screen.

' The picture to be mapped must be in the top, left (0,0) corner of

the

' screen.

' This is not a perspective map, but you would only have to modify the

' scan converter to generate the picture x,y points depending on the

' z co-ords of the polygon. The texture mapping routine would stay the

' same.

' I've half managed to do a perspective map, but it's still bugged!

' It will be posted when (if?) I manage to get it working...

DECLARE SUB GetPolygonPoints ()

DECLARE SUB FindSmallLargeY ()

DECLARE SUB ScanConvert (X1%, Y1%, X2%, Y2%, Pside\$)

DECLARE SUB TextureMap ()

DECLARE SUB ScanLeftSide (X1%, X2%, Ytop%, Lineheight%, Pside\$)

DECLARE SUB ScanRightSide (X1%, X2%, Ytop%, Lineheight%, Pside\$)

' *********************************************

' Machine specific code

' Find screen address

Screenbase% = 0

' Set screen address and set to low resolution

SCREEN 13

DEF SEG = &HA000

'Set Palette

OUT &H3C8, 0

FOR x = 0 TO 63

OUT &H3C9, x

OUT &H3C9, 0

OUT &H3C9, 0

NEXT

FOR x = 0 TO 63

OUT &H3C9, 63 - x

OUT &H3C9, x

OUT &H3C9, 0

NEXT

FOR x = 0 TO 63

OUT &H3C9, 0

OUT &H3C9, 63 - x

OUT &H3C9, x

NEXT

FOR x = 0 TO 63

OUT &H3C9, x

OUT &H3C9, x

OUT &H3C9, 63

NEXT

'Load in the picture to be texture mapped (must be in top,left of

'screen)

0

CLS

FOR Y% = 0 TO 15

FOR x% = 0 TO 15

PSET (x%, Y%), x% + 16 * Y%

NEXT

NEXT

' *********************************************

' General Texture Mapping code.

' Machine independent, probably :-)

' Variables and arrays.

DIM SHARED Lefttable(400, 2), Righttable(400, 2) 'Scan converter tables

for polygon

DIM SHARED Miny%, Maxy%

' p.s - replace both the 400 values above with you max. screen height in

pixels

DIM SHARED Polypoints%(3, 1) ' Array for polygon co-ords, 4 pairs(x,y)

co-ords

DIM SHARED Pwidth%, Pheight%

Pwidth% = 15 'original picture width in pixels

Pheight% = 15 'original picture height in pixels

Miny% = 32767 'set initial smallest y co-ord of polygon after rotation

Maxy% = 0 'set initial largest y co-ord of polygon after rotation

' Main program

GetPolygonPoints

FindSmallLargeY

FOR x% = 0 TO 3

PSET (Polypoints%(x%, 0), Polypoints%(x%, 1)), 63

NEXT

' Send polygon points to the scan converter

X1% = Polypoints%(0, 0)

Y1% = Polypoints%(0, 1)

X2% = Polypoints%(1, 0)

Y2% = Polypoints%(1, 1)

ScanConvert X1%, Y1%, X2%, Y2%, "top" 'scan top of picture

X1% = Polypoints%(1, 0)

Y1% = Polypoints%(1, 1)

X2% = Polypoints%(2, 0)

Y2% = Polypoints%(2, 1)

ScanConvert X1%, Y1%, X2%, Y2%, "right" 'scan right of picture

X1% = Polypoints%(2, 0)

Y1% = Polypoints%(2, 1)

X2% = Polypoints%(3, 0)

Y2% = Polypoints%(3, 1)

ScanConvert X1%, Y1%, X2%, Y2%, "bottom" 'scan bottom of picture

X1% = Polypoints%(3, 0)

Y1% = Polypoints%(3, 1)

X2% = Polypoints%(0, 0)

Y2% = Polypoints%(0, 1)

ScanConvert X1%, Y1%, X2%, Y2%, "left" 'scan left of picture

' Do the actual texture mapping

TextureMap

' The points for polygon.

' These points in the form x,y define the shape of a four sided polygon

' rotated 45 degrees. These are 2d points that would normally come from

' a 3d routine after perspective had been applied.

' The points must be defined clockwise....

Polygonpoints:

DATA 100,0

DATA 190,10

DATA 180,100

DATA 90,90

' an alternative polygon to try

'Polygonpoints:

'DATA 50,50

'DATA 150,50

'DATA 150,150

'DATA 50,150

DO: LOOP WHILE INKEY\$ = ""

GOTO 0

'--------------8<-----------------------

'

'Stupid "^M"'s are showing up at the end of every line here on xvnews

'under OpenWindows. It always does that on DOS text file, I hope

'it doesn't screw anything up...

'White Flame

'</PRE>

' </CODE>

' </FONT>

' </OL>

' <BR>

' <IMG SRC="images/bastex.gif"><BR>

' | <A HREF="index.html">Back</A> |<BR>

' </BODY>

'</HTML>

SUB FindSmallLargeY

FOR Count% = 0 TO 3

Ycoord% = Polypoints%(Count%, 1)

IF Ycoord% < Miny% THEN ' is this the new lowest y co-ord?

Miny% = Ycoord% ' Yes...

END IF

IF Ycoord% > Maxy% THEN ' is this the new highest y co-ord?

Maxy% = Ycoord% ' Yes...

END IF

NEXT

END SUB

SUB GetPolygonPoints

RESTORE Polygonpoints: ' start of un-rotated polygon co-ords

FOR Count% = 0 TO 3

READ Polypoints%(Count%, 0) ' read x co-ord

READ Polypoints%(Count%, 1) ' read y co-ord

RANDOMIZE TIMER

Polypoints%(Count%, 0) = RND * 320

Polypoints%(Count%, 1) = RND * 200

NEXT

END SUB

SUB ScanConvert (X1%, Y1%, X2%, Y2%, Pside\$)

' This procedure takes as defined by X1%,Y1%,x2,Y2%.

' It also takes a string telling it which side of the picture we are

'mapping. The strings are top,right,bottom,left. This routine decides

'which 'side' of the polygon the line is on, and then calls the

'appropriate routine.

IF Y2% < Y1% THEN

SWAP X1%, X2% 'swap these variable round so we always scan from top

SWAP Y1%, Y2% 'to bottom

Lineheight% = Y2% - Y1%

ScanLeftSide X1%, X2%, Y1%, Lineheight%, Pside\$

ELSE

Lineheight% = Y2% - Y1%

ScanRightSide X1%, X2%, Y1%, Lineheight%, Pside\$

END IF

END SUB

SUB ScanLeftSide (X1%, X2%, Ytop%, Lineheight%, Pside\$)

' This procedure calculates the x points for the left side of the

'polygon. It also calculates the x,y co-ords of the picture for the left

'side of the polygon.

Lineheight% = Lineheight% + 1 ' No divide by zero

Xadd = (X2% - X1%) / Lineheight%

IF Pside\$ <> "top" AND Pside\$ <> "bottom" AND Pside\$ <> "left" AND

Pside\$ <> "right" THEN PRINT "I'M MESSED UP!"

IF Pside\$ = "top" THEN

Px = Pwidth% - 1

Py = 0

Pxadd = -Pwidth% / Lineheight%

END IF

IF Pside\$ = "right" THEN

Px = Pwidth%

Py = Pheight%

Pyadd = -Pheight% / Lineheight%

END IF

IF Pside\$ = "bottom" THEN

Px = 0

Py = Pheight%

Pxadd = Pwidth% / Lineheight%

END IF

IF Pside\$ = "left" THEN

Px = 0

Py = 0

Pyadd = Pheight% / Lineheight%

END IF

x = X1%

FOR Y% = 0 TO Lineheight%

PSET (x, Ytop% + Y%), 63

Lefttable(Ytop% + Y%, 0) = x 'polygon x

Lefttable(Ytop% + Y%, 1) = Px 'picture x

Lefttable(Ytop% + Y%, 2) = Py 'picture y

x = x + Xadd 'Next polygon x

Px = Px + Pxadd 'Next picture x

Py = Py + Pyadd 'Next picture y

NEXT

END SUB

SUB ScanRightSide (X1%, X2%, Ytop%, Lineheight%, Pside\$)

' This procedure calculates the x points for the right side of the '

polygon. It also calculates the x,y co-ords of the picture for the

' right side of the polygon.

Lineheight% = Lineheight% + 1 ' No divide by zero

Xadd = (X2% - X1%) / Lineheight%

IF Pside\$ <> "top" AND Pside\$ <> "bottom" AND Pside\$ <> "left" AND

Pside\$ <> "right" THEN PRINT "I'M MESSED UP!"

IF Pside\$ = "top" THEN

Px = 0

Py = 0

Pxadd = Pwidth% / Lineheight%

END IF

IF Pside\$ = "right" THEN

Px = Pwidth%

Py = 0

Pyadd = Pheight% / Lineheight%

END IF

IF Pside\$ = "bottom" THEN

Px = Pwidth%

Py = Pheight%

Pxadd = -Pwidth% / Lineheight%

END IF

IF Pside\$ = "left" THEN

Px = 0

Py = Pheight%

Pyadd = -Pheight% / Lineheight%

END IF

x = X1%

FOR Y% = 0 TO Lineheight%

PSET (x, Ytop% + Y%), 63

Righttable(Ytop% + Y%, 0) = x 'polygon x

Righttable(Ytop% + Y%, 1) = Px 'picture x

Righttable(Ytop% + Y%, 2) = Py 'picture y

x = x + Xadd 'Next polygon x

Px = Px + Pxadd 'Next picture x

Py = Py + Pyadd 'Next picture y

NEXT Y%

END SUB

SUB TextureMap

' This is the actual mapping routine

' It takes the co-ords that have been calculated by the scan converter

' and 'traces' across the original picture in between them looking at

' the pixel color and then plotting a pixel in that color in the

' current position within the polygon.

FOR Y% = Miny% TO Maxy%

Polyx1 = Lefttable(Y%, 0) 'get left polygon x

Px1 = Lefttable(Y%, 1) 'get left picture x

Py1 = Lefttable(Y%, 2) 'get left picture y

Polyx2 = Righttable(Y%, 0) 'get right polygon x

Px2 = Righttable(Y%, 1) 'get right picture x

Py2 = Righttable(Y%, 2) 'get right picture y

Linewidth% = Polyx2 - Polyx1 'what is the width of this polygon line

IF Linewidth% = 0 THEN

Linewidth% = Linewidth% + 1 'QUICK fix so it doesn't do divide by zero

END IF

Pxadd = (Px2 - Px1) / Linewidth% 'squash picture xdist into poly xdist

Pyadd = (Py2 - Py1) / Linewidth% 'squash picture ydist into poly ydist

FOR x% = Polyx1 TO Polyx2

Col% = POINT(Px1, Py1) 'get color of pixel at current pos in pic

PSET (x%, Y%), Col% ' plot the pixel in the correct color

Px1 = Px1 + Pxadd ' move x picture co-ord

Py1 = Py1 + Pyadd ' move y picture co-ord

NEXT

NEXT

END SUB

To make a texture for a sphere, first us spherical coordinates to first define a sphere. For

all values of theta and phi with r as a constant radius of the sphere.

X = r * SIN(theta) * COS(phi)

Y = r * SIN(theta) * SIN (phi)

Z = r * COS(theta)

Now in terms of u and v, generally used for variables in texture mapping.

X = r * SIN(v * PI) * COS(u * 2 * PI)

Y = r * SIN(v * PI) * SIN(u * 2 * PI)

Z = r * COS(v * PI)

Now solving for u, v

U = arcSIN(z / r) / PI

V = (arcCOS(x / (r * SIN(v * PI)))) / (2 * PI)

Other types of texture mapping are perspective correct texture mapping and bump

mapping.

Appendix A: Binary, Decimal, and Hexadecimal

Binary, as you might know, is used by computers. Decimal is what most people use and

hexadecimal is a base system used by programmers to in easier to remember than binary.

Binary is base two; decimal is base ten; hexadecimal is base sixteen. What the base means

is what the highest number can be in was column. As you know in decimal you have the

1's, 10's, 100's, and so on, columns, what you might not have realized is the these numbers

are powers of 10 (this where the base 10 comes form).

100 = 1

101 = 10

102 = 100

The number in each column is multiplied by the base of the number system to the columns

position to the left of zero'th power. Binary has a 1's then 2's then 4's, 8's, and so on,

columns. Hexadecimal has a 1's, 16's, 256's, and so on, column's. Hexadecimal is noted

with and h after the number, or in BASIC with a &H before it.

Here are some examples in all three number systems.

1 1 1

2 10 2

3 11 3

4 100 4

5 101 5

6 110 6

7 111 7

8 1000 8

9 1001 9

10 1010 10

11 1011 a

12 1100 b

13 1101 c

14 1110 d

15 1111 e

16 10000 f

Appendix B: Bitwise Operators

A Bitwise operator is comparing of each bit of a number's binary equivalence. A bit is

either a 1 or a 0, the numbers used in binary. There are six operators that I know of, they

are listed as the following: AND, OR, XOR, NOT, EQV, IMP.

The AND operator sees if both values being compared have a 1 in the same bit position.

ex. 9 AND 5 = x

9 = 1001 in binary

5 = 0101 in binary

x = 0001 in binary because in bit position one both numbers were 1

x = 1 in decimal

The OR, inclusive, operator sees if one or both of the values is/are 1.

ex. 9 OR 5 = x

9 = 1001 in binary

5 = 0101 in binary

x = 1101 in binary because there are 1's in bit positions 1, 3, and 4

x = 13 in decimal

The XOR, exclusive, operator sees if one and only one of the bit positions is 1

ex. 9 XOR 5 = x

9 = 1001 in binary

5 = 0101 in binary

x = 1100 in binary because in positions 3 and 4 1 appeared once

x = 12 in decimal

The NOT operator looks if the first value has a 0 in any bit position.

ex. 9 NOT 5 = x

9 = 1001 in binary

5 = 0101 in binary

x = 0110 in binary because 0's appeared in bit positions 2 and 3

x= 6 in decimal

The EQV operator sees if both bit positions are the same, either 1 or 0.

ex. 9 EQV 5 = x

9 = 1001 in binary

5 = 0101 in binary

x = 0011 in binary because in bit positions 1 and 2 the bits were the same

x = 3 in decimal

The IMP operator sees if the first value's bit isn't 1 and the second values bit isn't 0

ex. 9 IMP 5 = x

9 = 1001 in binary

5 = 0101 in binary

x = 0111 in binary

x = 7 in decimal

Appendix C: Vector Mathematics

Although this is usually taught in Calculus and Linear Algebra college courses, it is

very easy to understand. A vector is really a quantity, and it is represented by a line

segment with a direction and a size(or length, or module, or norm, or magnitude). In this

paper vectors have been used as rays from the origin, point (0, 0, 0) through point p.

Vectors are usually named a, b, c, .... All the basic (add, subtract, multiply, divide)

operations can be done to a vector.

Vector addition is easy. Just perform each operation to each point of the same

type, x to x, y to y, z to z. ex. given vectors A and B, A + B means the ordered triplet

(vector A's X coordinate + vector B's X coordinate, vector A's Y coordinate + vector B's

Y coordinate, vector A's Z coordinate + vector B's Z coordinate). To make it even easier,

I'll substitute number's for variables. Given vector A = (10, 11, 12) and B = (3, 4, 5) and

A + B = C, C = (10 + 3, 11 + 4, 12 + 5), or more simply, C = (13, 15, 17). The same

thing applies for subtraction, since subtraction is the same as adding the additive inverse,

or opposite.

There are more than one different vector multiplication, and divisions obviously.

The first is scaling a vector, or increasing or decreasing, the magnitude of the vector.

Given Vector A and a scale factor S, S * A means (A's X * S, A's Y * S, A's Z * S). If S

= -1 then this is written -A instead of -1 * A. Next there is the dot product. The dot

product is a multiplication of two vectors. The result is a quantity (not a vector) and is

written, with vectors A and B, A dot B. Once again with vectors A and B, the dot

product would be Ax * Bx + Ay * By + Az * Bz. The dot product can be used for many

things. The magnitude, written |A| for vector A. has a value of (A dot A) ^ (1 / 2), this is

3D distance formula in a different form. Dividing any vector by its length is called

normalizing the vector. Normalizing a vector reduces it's length to 1, this eventually leads

to faster and less math. The dot product can also be used to find the angle between any

two vectors. For vectors A and B, and theta being the angle between them, A dot B = |A|

* |B| * COS theta. The other type of vector multiplication is the cross product. The cross

product of two vectors, once again I will use A and B, is (Ay * Bz - Az * Ay, Az * Bx -

Bz * Ax, Ax * By - Ay * Bx). The cross product of two vectors is perpendicular or

orthonormal (forms a right angle) to the plane of the two vectors, and has a length of

|A||B|SIN theta, when theta is the angle between the two vectors.

Appendix D: Matrices

A matrix is way to express systems of linear equations. The actual matrix looks

something like a grid.

(m11, m12, m13)

M = (m21, m22, m23)

(m31, m32, m33)

The above is an example of a 3 x 3 matrix. It has 3 rows and 3 columns. It can also be

written M = (mij), where i is the row and j is the column. If this looks hard, don't worry.

You have all used matrices if you knew it of not. The multiplication tables from second

grade are matrices. If a matrix has the same number of rows and columns then it is a

square matrix. An identity matrix is a square matrix that (mij) = 1 if i = j. It looks like this

(1, 0, 0)

(0, 1, 0)

(0, 0, 1)

Matrix addition, along with subtraction, is almost like adding vectors. For two matrices

with then same dimensions, add the same type. Matrix addition is written A + B = C,

which means (aij) + (bij) = (cij). ex.

(1, 0, 1) (2, 3, 4) (1 + 2, 0 + 3, 1 + 4) (3, 3, 5)

(1, 0, 2) + (4, 5, 6) = (1 + 4, 0 + 5, 2 + 6) = (5, 5, 8)

(3, 4, 5) (6, 3, 1) (3 + 6, 4 + 3, 5 + 1) (9, 7, 6)

With Matrices there are, like in vector mathematics, two ways of multiplying matrices.

Matrices can be multiplied by a scalar or another matrix. Multiplication by a scalar is

written, where s is the scalar, M * s, which means to multiply each element, or part, of the

matrix by k. ex.

(11, 12, 13) (110, 120, 130)

(21, 22, 23) * 10 = (210, 220, 230)

(31, 32, 33) (310, 320, 330)

Matrix multiplication is a little hard to understand at first, but is just as easy as the last two

operations. For matrices A, B, and C, given that they have all the same dimensions, A * B

= C, means that (cij) equals the sum of all (aik) * (bkj), for k = 1 to the number of

columns. This is rather vague, so I hope this example helps. (notice that the first matrix's

first position is the first position of the final matrix and the second matrix's first position is

the final matrix's second position.)

(1, 2)(10, 11) (1 * 10 + 2 * 13, 1 * 11 + 2 * 14) (36, 39)

(4, 5)(13, 14) = (4 * 10 + 5 * 13, 4 * 11 + 5 * 14) = (105, 114)

An important note is that matrix multiplication is not commutative, A * B <> B * A. Also

any matrix multiplied by an identity matrix is the original, non-identity, matrix. This is why

it is called an identity matrix because it returns the same identity of the original matrix.

Appendix E: QBASIC

QBASIC is a high level programming language that is very easy to learn, and I

make many references to, especially the math set. The mathematics symbols are

- subtract

* multiply

/ divide

\ integer divide (rounds to closes integer, estimates)

^ n to the nth power

SQR(n) square root of n

SIN(n) sine of n

COS(n) cosine of n

TAN(n) tangent of n

MOD modulo, divides by number and returns remainder

The above and following are some things someone new to QBASIC will need to

understand the programming examples.

There are different types of data formats for variables. There is the INTEGER,

called short in some other programming languages. The INTEGER uses to bytes to save

a signed number. A signed number is a number that can be positive or negative. An

unsigned number is positive. With two bytes (16 bits) you can save 65536 numbers. This

is because a bit can be either 1 or 0, or two combinations. 16 bits have 2 ^ 16 many

combinations. But since an INTEGER is a signed number, then it can have a range from

-32,768 to 32,767. A LONG is an integer that uses four bytes (32 bits) and has 2 ^ 32 or

4294967296 different combinations. A LONG is also a signed number so it has a range of

-2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647. A SINGLE is a floating point number. This means that

it has a decimal. This makes math slow because the interpreter needs to remember where

the decimal point is. A SINGLE use four bytes (32 bits). A DOUBLE is the same as a

single but it uses eight bytes (64 bits) to store it's number. A STRING is a variable that

stores text. QBASIC has some shortcuts to defining the variables' data types. A variable

can have a suffix of % for INTEGER, & for LONG, ! for SINGLE, # for DOUBLE, or \$

for STRING.

An array is a variable that has more than one value stored in it. A value is

accessed by way of elements, or parts of, of the array's dimensions that are in parenthesis.

ex.

array(0) = 5

This looks at the value of array at 0 at dimension 1

An array can have more than one dimension like the following: Array (1, 4). But first an

array must be DIMensioned by the DIM command. DIM array( lower bound of

dimension 1 TO upper bound of dimension 1). If the lower bound is omitted then it is 0

by default. The DIM command can also be used to define a variable's, or array's, data type.

Appendix F: Futher Reading

Lithuim\VLA 3drotate.doc

Garms, Christian. 3d Graphics in BASIC

Bourke, Paul. Parametric Equation of a sphere and texture mapping.

Barrett,Sean. Texture Mapping

Helminen, Hannu . Free Direction Texture Mapping

Loisel, Sebastien . ZED3D.doc.

FAQ: 3-D Information for the Programmer

Denthor of Asphyxia. VGA trainer 14

---. VGA Trainer 17

---. VGA Trainer 20

---. VGA Trainer 21

---. VGA Trainer 8

---. VGA Trainer 9

Voltaire/OTM. Polygons and Shading.

---. Real-time Phong Shading

S-Buffers. Paul Nettle

BSP Tree Frequently Asked Questions

comp.graphics.algorithms FAQ